Place-names of Ossetian origin in view of their critical importance to the Scythian-Sarmatian issues are dealt separately. While finding other place names of Iranic origin it turned out that one can talk with the high degree of confidence about Kurdish ones which were represented by more or less distinct clusters what could confirm their origin. The remaining cases are probabilistic. The list of place names of Iranic origin is being supplemented and corrected during the research that requires constant adjustment of illustrative maps and it's pretty hard work, which also harms their quality. In this regard, the new additions and removal of random coincidences will be placed in Google map (see below).
At right: The map of Iranic place names in Eastern and Central Europe.
There on the map the place names of Kurdish origin are marked by rosa asterisks. Dark red asterisks refer to Kurdish places having the partial word Maydan. Violet ones – Afghan place names. Green – Ossetic place names, brown – others, yellow – doubtful.
The common Iranic space is surrounded by yellow. The borders of the Ossetic Urheimat are marked by green, the Kurdish Urheimat is surrounded by red and the Afghan Urheimat is by violet.
During the analysis of opaque place names of Ukraine it turned out that about 250 of them may have Kurdish roots, and most of them are located on the territory of Khmelnitsky, Vinnitsa and Ternopil Regions (48, 44 and 38 units, respectively). Later significant clusters of Kurdish place names were found in Poland. However there are on the Urheimat of the Kurds between the Desna and Oka Rivers and the surrounding areas only a few place names of supposedly Kurdish origin. The following list may have accidental words, but there are quite convincing interpretations:
The village of (v.) Atiusha to the north-east of the town of (t.) Baturyn in Chernihiv Region – Kurd ateş “fire”;
the river (r.) Beriushka, the left tributary (lt) of the Kleven’, the right tributary (rt) of the Seym, rt of the Desna, lt of the Dnieper – Kurd birûsk “lighting, thunderstorm”;
v. Buklata north of the city of Kursk – Kurd bûk "a bride", lat "poor";
v. Chepelivka to the north of Stary Oskol – Kurd. çepel "dirty";
r. Esman’, rt of the Ret’, lt of the Desna, r. Esman’, rt of the Kleven’, rt of the Seym, r. Osmon’, rt of the Svapa, rt of the Seym – Kurd e’sman “sky”.
v. Kerbutivka north-west of the town of Konotop – Kurd ker "daef", kêr "needful", bût, pût "an idol"
r. Kharaseya, rt of the Svapa, rt of the Seym – Kurd xarû “clear”, eşîya “a thing”, xur “swift stream”; com. Ir xur, xor “the sun” and saia “to shine”;
r. Navla, rt of the Desna – Kurd newal “valley”;
ð. Nugr', lt of the Oka River on the border with Balochi area – Kurd. niqar, Pers. nogre and other similar Iranian “silver”; the name of the river can have Balochi origin, as there is in Balochistan the Nogra River;
r. Ret’, lt of the Desna, r. Retik, rt of the Ret’ – Kurd rêtin “to pour”;
r. Tim, rt of the Sosna, rt of the Don and the village of Tim in the riverhead è – êóðä. tim “side”;
v. Vorgol on the Vorgolka River, rt of the Kleven River, rt of the Seym River – Kurd. war “place”, gol “a lake”.
t. Zamglai and the Zamglay River, the tributary of the Desna River– Kurd. zong "swamp" and leyi "a strem". There is near these places one of the largest boggy systems of Ukraine.
r. Zvan, the strait between the Kleven’ and Seym, the name is consonant to Zhvan in the West Ukraine – Kurd jwan “meeting” or cwan “beautiful”.
The area limited by the Seym, Desna, Dnieper, and Psel (possibly Sula) Rivers is defined as the Urheimat of Afghans. Here or there are place names which can have not only Iranic but namely Afghan origin:
vv. Keleberda on the bank of the Dnieper in Čerkasy Region opposite Kaniv and next to Komsomolsk – Afg.kālə “a hous”, and berta “back”, but better Kurd. kelî "mountain" and berd "stone".
t. Nezhyn – Afg. nix.an, Pers nišan “a sign, feature”;
r. Tarapunka, rt of the Liutenka, lt of the Psel River can be decoded as "black mushroom". Common Iranic tar(a) means "black" and pongo, ponka, fank does any round object. Earlier the word meant simply "mushroom", and it is present in this sense in many languages (except for Iranic also Lat fungus, Mord panga, etc.), but only Iranic word is well suited to its attribute.
v. Shaboltasivka to the south-west of the city of Novhorod-Siverski – Afg šabel “an adge, point” and Pers tus “birch”.
v. Varva on the Uday River near the town of Pryluky – Afg. vavra “a kind of vulture, carrion-eagle”;
Place names of Iranic origin can also be found in other area of the common Iranic territory but no certain system in their spread is visible. Frequent changes of the population resulted to the loss of old names, or, at best, contributed to their transfer of one object to another. Confidently speaking about Iranic place names is possible only in individual cases.
There are near the town of Zolotonosha in Cherkasy Region the rivers Irkley, lt of the Dnieper, and the village Irkleyiv on it, and almost opposite another Irkley flows into the Tiasmin, rt of the Dnieper. Both rivers flow in the ravines, so the Kurd erq "a ravine" and leyi – "a stream" suits to local conditions very well. This is the area of the Afghans, but similar words were not found as in Pashto and in other Iranic languages. The name of the village of Shengury, located near the village of Kobeliaki in Poltava Region, can be associated not only with the Kurds. şengari "good" or Pashto šəngara "a girl who ran away to marry a loved one", but also with other similar words of Finno-Ugric language family (eg Moksha syangiarya "green"). Below are a few examples of other possble place names of Iranic origin:
t. Merefa in Kharkiv Region – com. Ir. mar- /mer- “to die, dead” and Pers afy “a snake”;
v. Murafa near the town of Bohodukhiv in Kharkiv Region – words mor/mur/mar and afi/api have the same meaning in Iranic “a snake”;
r. Obesta, lt of the Kleven', rt of the Seym – common Iranic ab, ob “water”, Tal. dial. yste "to take". Consonance with Avesta is casual.
ð. Sev, lt of the Nerussa, lt of the Desna – Yagn. sāw, îñ. saw "black" cf. Tara;
ð. Tara, lt of the Sev, ëlt of the Nerussa, lt of the Desna – common Iranic tar- "dark"; cf Sev.
Place names of Kurdish origin on the Right-bank Ukraine are concentrated mostly in the Khmelnitskyi region and surrounding areas of Ternopil and Vinnitsa regions on a relatively small afforested land space with black soil, being bordered by the Dniester in the south and by clearly marked large forest tracts in the west and north what is clear seen on a forest map of Ukraine to the 1st mill AD (GENSIRUK S.A. 2002). The Zolota Lypa River is a border of the western forestland, while a strip of forest stretches from the town of Zolochiv to the north-east up to the town of Kremenec’, whence it extends eastward through the town of Shepetivka to the city of Zhitomyr. Though the eastern forest tract is not articulated as clearly now, the territory to the south of Vinnytsa and Khmel’nyc’kyj Regions remains significantly more wooded than Ternopil’ Region and the western part of Khmel’nyc’kyi Region.
When moving to forested terrain Kurds obviously sought out to settle open forest areas which they called by the word Maydan. This is confirmed by the numerous villages of Ukraine and Poland called "Maydan" (or that contain that word in the name), which are located in open areas of woodland. It means not only "square" but also "lowland, surrounded by forest" in the Ukrainian language, and in Russian does "forest glade". It is believed that this word is borrowed from the Turkic languages (MELNYCHUK O.S., Ed.1989: 361), but original words with initial m are absent in the Turkic languages, they are either borrowed or derived from the previous b. Sure, the Turks have borrowed this word from the Iranic peoples which have the word majda "small, low" and yan "side". However, we must bear in mind that due to the prevalence of the word, not all locations with the same name may have Iranic origin.
Let us briefly consider some place names that have been recorded on that territory. There are in Ternopil and Vinnytsia Regions several settlements having stem juryn, there is also the Jurin River, lt of the Dniester, and this gives us reason to allow the origin of the names of the Kurd. çoran "to flow".
Another left tributary of the Dniester Barysh with slow flow can origin from Kurd bariş "calm, quiet”. The village on the banks of the river has the same name. Yet the names of several villages match the names of nearby rivers or streams. There are in Khmelnytsky Region villages, Baglai, Buglai, and, Baglayky. These names can stem from Kurd. beq "a frog" and leyi "a stream”. Afg buglaj "a heron, stork" fits too, but other place names having probable Afghan origin on the Right Bank Ukraine are not found.
There are in Khmelnitsky and Vinnitsa Regions two rivers Zhvan and yet Zhvanchyk and several villages of the same name. Kurdish jwan means "meeting, appointment". Phonetic match is full, but the motivation of naming is questionable. Kurd. cwan "beautiful" is suited better. It is also not entirely clear motivation the naming of the Seret River, which has the tributaries of the Seret Left and Siret Right. Kurd. sereta "beginning" does not suits for the river name, it can have Thracian origin (serita) from Indo-European root *ser- “to flow” (YANKO M.P., 1998: 117). However, there is in the Kurdish language yet the word siret "path", which also may be suitable for the name of the river.
Some scholars believe the name of the town of Zhmerynka derives from ethnonym "Cimmerians". M. Vasmer finds this explanation unconvincing (Vasmer Max, 1967, T2, 58), but considering the other facts, it seems plausible, especially because the modern Kurdish language has a lot of words like this place name such as gemaro "siege", qemer "month" etc. Not far from Zhmerinka flows the Murafa River, the etymology of the names discussed above.
There are in Eastern Europe place names of possible Kurdish origin a lot, but as always random coincidences are not not excluded, so just a few examples with good phonetic correspondences are presented:
v. Baznikivka, to the south-west of Kozeva in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. baz, “a falcon,” nikul, “a beak”;
v. Balakiry, east of Horodok in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd.bala, “rise, elevation" (cf about water) ;
v. Bashuky, at the sources of the Horyn' River – Kurd.başok, “hawk”;
v. Chepeli near Brody in L’viv Region and northeast of Khmel’nyk in Vinnytsia Region, and the village of Čepelivka in Khmel’nyc’kyj Region in the suburbs of Krasilov – Kurd. çepel, “dirty”;
v.Hermakivka (Germakivka), southeast of Borščev in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. germik, “warm place”;
v.v. Velyki and Mali Dederkaly on the outskirts of Kremenec’ in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. dederi, “a tramp,” kal, “old”;
v. Dzhulynka, to the north-east of Bershad’ in Vinnytsa Region – Kurd. colan “cradle”;
v. Kalaharivka (Kalagarivka), to the south-east of Hrymajliv in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. qal, "to kindle,” agir, “a flame”;
v. Kilikiyiv, to the north-east of Slavuty in Khmel’nyc’kyj Region – Kurd. kelek, “ferry”;
v. Kokutkivci to the north-west of Ternopil’ – Kurd. ko, “curve,”kutek “cudgel;”
v. Mikhyrinci to north-east of Volochys’k – Kurd. mexer “ruins”;
v. Mukhariv to the east of the town of Novohrad-Volynski – Kurd. mû “wool, hair”, xarû “clean, pure”;
v. Palashivka to the west of Čortkiv in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. pelaş, “straw”;
v. Tauriv to the west of Ternopil’ – Kurd. tawer, “rock;”
The band of Kurdish place names extanded along the left bank of the Dniester to the town of Mogyliv Podilsky and then turns to the town of Haysyn and it becomes network in the right-bank forest-steppe after the town of Uman.
Undoubted presence of the Ancient Kurds on the Right Bank Ukraine immediately raises the question by which way they got there. We may assume keeping in mind the general movement of the Iranic tribes from the territory of their initial settlement between the Dnieper and the Don to the south and south-east that the ancestors of the Kurds came to the Azov steppes, and from there crossed the Dnieper and later moved to the northwest, displacing previous settlers that is the Thracians to the south-west, and the Bulgars – to the west. The band of Kurdish settlements from Haysyn and further along the Dniester River to the west can mark this path, but the presence of place names of Kurdish origin in Chernihiv, Kyiv and Zhytomyr Regions gives reason to consider another option.
The Kurdish settlements at their Urheimat are stretching along the Desna River, so we may assume that their ancestors went down to the Dnieper, crossed it and headed westward. This moving could last a long time, and some of the migrants could stay at intermediate stands, what explains the presence of Kurdish place names in the area of the Anglo-Saxons. We can talk more or less confident about such Kurdish place names which can mark the resettlement route of Kurds:
Migration of the Kurds to new settlements.
t. Berdychiv in Zhytomyr Region – the most plausible interpretation, based on the Kurdish language: Kurd. berd "stone", çew "sand" is not only well suited phonetically, but also correspond to the peculiarity of the terrain around the town where for long are mined sand and gravel, there are in the town several companies of the stone processing industry;
v. Byshiv in Makariv distruict of Kiev Region – Kuêd bişav “solution”, bişêv “to liquefy”;
v. Chemkiv on the left bank of the Pripyat' near the mouth – Kurd çem “river”, kew “blue”;
v. Devoshin to the northwest of Ovruch – Kurd. dewa “medicine”, şîn “misfortune”;
v. Kharleivka to the west of the station Popelnia in Zhytomyr Region – Kurd xar “crooked”, leyi “rivulet, stream”;
v. Kichkiry to the south of Radomyshl in Zhytomyr Region – Kurd keç “a daugther”, kerî “a part”;
v. Pyrky to the north of the mouth of the Prypiat – Kurd. pir “bridge”, -ki – the suffix of the relative adjective;
v. Singury to the south of Zhytomyr (see also above Shengury) – Kurd. sing "thistle" , ûre "seeds";
v. Termakhivka to the north-west of Ivankiv in Kyiv Region – Kurd germ “warm”, term, “body, corpse”, ax, “ground”.
The band of Kurdish villages, which stretches along the Dniester River on the east may indicate that the Kurds were obviously moved simultaneously with the Bulgars in the direction of the Dnieper River, forcing the remnants of the Thracians beyond the Dniester, and then turned to the Black Sea steppes, where they became known in history as the Cimmerians. Later, most of them, perhaps under pressure from Scythian Bulgars, walked through the Balkans to Asia Minor, and stayed some time in Cilicia. But a part of them remained near the Black Sea, because some names among the Scythian epigraphy can have good Kurdish interpretation.
Kurdish Place Names in Poland
Populated Podolia, Kurdish ancestors stayed here for several centuries and, as shown by their recent history, they should be associated with the historical Cimmerians, so we wiil call them so further.
While analyzing place names of southeastern corner of Poland (namely in the Lublin province) a small cluster of names easily decrypted using the Kurdish language was found in a small. These are the names of Polish villages:
Narol, a town in Podkarpacie Voivodeship, in Lubaczów County – Kurd. nar «fire», ol «religion». Kurdish nar It is not borrowing from Arabic as opposed to nûr "light, glow, beam".
Paary, a village in district of Gmina Susiec, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship – Kurd pa "level", ar "fire".
Pordysówka, a village near Hamernia (see near) – Kurd fort «solemnity», subh "morning, dawn".
Rebizanty,a village in two km from Paary – Kurd. reb "lord", zend "hand".
Hamernia , a village in four km from Rebizanty to north-east – Kurd xumar "morose" or xawer "sun".
As you can see, all the names of the villages are connected either with god or with fire or the sun. Obviously, they all have religious meaning. Village chain stretched from the southeast to the northwest at a distance of twenty kilometers between two large forests. The town Bilgoraj is a little away from them and its name could be coined by Kurd .belg "a leaf" and semantically close to it ray "a root". Far around the area found other place names which could be decrypted by means of Kurdish. It can not be accidental. Obviously, pagan temples have been focused in this area, where at certain times the local population came together to perform religious rites. The grounds for such an assumption given numerous names of villages nearest neighborhood containing the word maydan (Maidan, Maidanek, Maidan-Gurny, Maidan-Wielki, Maidan-Sopocki, Maidan-Nepryski)
The detected group of place names of possible Kurdish origin gave rise to new searches, and it turned out that settlements called Maidan (or containing that word) are surprisingly numerous in Poland. They can be counted more than two dozen (about the same in Ukraine, mostly in the western regions).There are in Poland two distinct groups of place names – to the south of Lublin and to the east of Warsaw. We can assume that the popularity of this appellative is connected to the presence of ancient Kurds on the territory of Poland at a sufficiently large space. There are among mentioned clusters villages which names can also be decrypted using the Kurdish language, but they are too short, so the probability of random coincidences is high: Biszcza, Decie, Dyzin, Zynie, Ładzyń, Obsza, Otwock, Tyborów a.o.
Some place names of supposed Kurdish origin would have to be found between mentioned Kurdish cluster in Lublin province and the main bulk of them in Ukraine which could mark the route of movement of migrants. We can assume that such settlements in the Lviv Region can be the town of Rawa Ruska (Kurd. rewa "a gift"), Belz (Burd. belg "a leaf"), Bišiv (Kurd. bişav "solution").
Kurdich place names in the Right-Bank Ukraine and Poland
Large clusters of Kurdish place names are located quite far from the Carpathian Mountains, and on the other side of mountains the place-names of possible Kurdish origin were not found, but it is interesting that the name of the Carpathian Mountains Beskydy can be decrypted just by means of the Kurdish language. Beskid – a system of ridges in the northern outer strip of the Carpathians. They are located on the border of Poland and Czechoslovakia and Ukraine, between the Morava River in the west and the headwaters of the San River in the east. The mountain slopes are covered with beech and fir forests, alpine meadows are spread on the treeless peaks. There are in Beskids convenient passes at the altitude of 500-1000 meters, which were used in the most ancient times.
The Ukrainian language has very much similar words with different but semantically similar senses. The very mountain range is called Besk³di, Bieszczady, Bieszczady, but there are also words meaning "gulf", "rock", "mountain", "mountain range" – besked, besket, beskeda, beshket, beskeddya etc. Under the influence of Ukrainian these mountains are called Polish beskid, beszczad, but formerly known as Bieszczad, and the Polish beskid has meaning "mountain range, mountains covered with forests". Similar words in different variants with similar senses are also present in the Slovak and Czech languages. The generally accepted etymological interpretation of these words is absent. Most often they are associated with the Alb. (Thrak.) bejške "mountain pasture", "a series of high mountains", but the formant – (k)ed is not clear. Unsuccessful attempts to find the origins of the word in the Germanic languages were also made (see from ar FASMER or MELNYCHUK).
However, the Iranic languages are best suited for decoding these words: beš / biš "forest" and gada / ğada/qät "a tree". Though, the only word beš was found in the Kurdish language, but the words gada/ğada/qät are present in Ossetian, Yagnob, Pashto and Persian closely akin to the Kurdish language, so it could exist in Kurdish, but disappeared. Both offered for decoding words are related in meaning, but at first glance are not well suited for the name of the mountain. However, this is not the case. In the closely related languages, the word meaning mountain can mean also either the forest or tree, or tree and forest (eg Serb. gora 1. "forest", 2. "mountain", Bulg. gora "forest"). Thus, Old Kurdish *bešqät could mean "mountain covered with trees", what is corresponded with the meaning of some modern Slavic words of this semantic family. If words related to the words gada / ğada / qät in the Kurdish language never existed, then it is possible to take into account the Kurd. qad "boundary, limit, border". In this case, bešqad means "forest frontier", what is even better suited to the situation, because Kurdish place names are absent on the other side of the Carpathians, ie, Kurds did not dare to cross this border forest. Note that the Carpathians are covered with forests and a certain part of them is called Wooded Carpathians. If to talk about the Albanian word bejške, it could be a derivative of the Kurdish beš borrowed at a time when Proto-Kurds and Thracians were neighbors somewhere near the modern-day city of Vinnitsa.
Multitudes of place names of Kurdish origin evidences that the ancestors of modern Kurds since beginning of the 1st mill. BC, populating the relatively small territory in Podilla, over time settled on a fairly large space. Kurdish settlements strip that stretches along the Dniester River to the east may indicate that the Kurds obviously moved simultaneously with the Bulgars in the direction to the Dnieper River, forcing out remnants of the Thracians beyond the Dniester, and then turned into Pontic steppes, where they became known in history as the Cimmerians. Later, most of them, perhaps under pressure of the Scythian-Bulgars, moved through the Balkans to Asia Minor and lingered awhile in Cilicia. However, some of them remained in region of the Black Sea, because names of supposed Kurdish origin found among of the Scythian names enough often. A separate group of Kurds migrated northwestward to the territory of present-day Poland. Prior to joining the Slavs they had to live in close proximity to the Germanic tribes. Later this part of Kurds moved to Central Europe (see the section Cimbri). This movement is marked by a number of names, among which are:
Czempisz, a village in Kalisz County, Greater Poland Voivodeship – Kurd. çem "a river", piş "beyond".
Kalisz, the county administrative center of Greater Poland Voivodeship – Kurd. keleş "nice".
Czempiń, a town in Kościan County, Greater Poland Voivodeship – Kurd. çem "a river", pin "a bottom".
Kaława, a village in Międzyrzecz County, Lubusz Voivodeship – Kurd. kelawe "ruins".
Kurdish Place Names in Germany and Denmark
From Poland the chain of Kurdish place names runs to Germany and stretches through the north-eastern its part to Jutland towards:
Rauen,a municipality in the Oder-Spree district, Brandenburg – Kurd. rewîn "flame".
Germendorf, a part of Oranienburg, a town in the district of Oberhavel in northern Brandenburg – Kurd. girmîn "thunder, rumbling".
Gerdshagen a municipality in the Prignitz district, Brandenburg – Kurd. gerd "great".
Demen a municipality in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern – Kurd. deman "rapid, quick".
Germakehre, a street in the municipality of Ellerau in Schleswig-Holstein – Kurd germ "warm", germ kirin "to warm".
Reaching Jutland, the Cimmerians settled here for a long time, and after a few hundred years, they have become known in Western Europe under the name of the Cimbri and the country inhabited by them was called Himmerland. Their presence in the Jutland is noted by the following place names:
Agger, a town in north-west Denmark – Kurd. ax "earth", ger "valley".
Asferg, a town to south-east of Hobro – Kurd. asê "fortified", ferq "top" or hasp "horse", erq "trench".
Asp, a town near Holatebro – Kurd. hasp "horse".
Names Gundersted, Gunderup and similar have a word part identical with Kurd. gund "village".
Hemmet, a town in Region Nordjylland – Kurd. h'îm "base, bed", mat "smooth, flat".
Hobro, a town in west Denmark – Kurd. xob "beautiful", ro 1. "a river", 2. "sun".
Holstebro, the main town in Holstebro Municipality – Kurd. xol "treshing", ştab "quick", ro "a river".
Ribe, a town in south-west Denmark – Kurd. reb "god".
Sevel, a town – Kurd. sêwel "a puppy".
Tander, a locality in east Denmark – Kurd. tan "base", der "place".
Tim, a town in west Denmark – Kurd. tîm "side".
Tønder, a town – Kurd. tan "base", der "place".
From Jutland, the Cimbri apparently pressed by the Germans moving from Scandinavia, migrated in search of free land for settlement to the south of Germany. Part of their way to mark the following place names:
Gerdau, a municipality in the district of Uelzen, Lower Saxony – Kurd gerd "great".
Warberg, a municipality in the district of Helmstedt, Lower Saxony – Kurd. war, wer "place".
Dederstedt, a village in the Mansfeld-Südharz district, Saxony-Anhalt – Kurd dederi "a vagabond".
Simildenstraße, a street in Leipzig – Kurd simil "ear of a plant", de'n "threshed grain".
Raschau, a municipality Raschau-Markersbach, Saxony – Kurd. reş "black", av "water".
Tirschendorf, a village in the Vogtlandkreis district, Saxony – Kurd tirş "sour".
Tirschenreuth, a village in Bavaria – Kurd tirş "sour".
, a municipality in the district of Cham in Bavaria – Kurd. lam "leaf".
Reaching Bavaria, the Cimbri together with Teutons and other Germanic tribes made several attempts to get to Italy through Austria and southern France, but were rebuffed by the Romans. After that, they moved towards Belgium, founding their settlements along the Rhine and in the immediate vicinity. The names of some of them are listed below.
Berzhausen, a municipality in the district of Altenkirchen, Rhineland-Palatinate – Kurd. berz "high".
Betelsdorf (now Berzdorf), a primordial name of the part of the sity of Wesseling in North Rhine-Westphalia – Kurd betil "a warrior, hero".
Gerderhahn, a locality in the town of Erkelenz Rhineland – Kurd gerd "great", han "approval".
Germersheim, a town in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate – Kurd germ "warm".
Gunderath, a municipality in the Vulkaneifel district in Rhineland-Palatinate – Kurd. gund "village", êretî "carelssness, heedlessness".
Keltern, a town in the district of Enz in Baden-Württemberg – Kurd kelte "oblique, slant, sloping".
Megezerweg, a street in the town of Rottenburg in Baden-Württemberg – Kurd megez "mosquito".
Merchweiler, a municipality in the district of Neunkirchen, Saarland – Kurd merx "fir-tree".
Merching, a municipality in the district of Aichach-Friedberg in Bavaria – Kurd merx "fir-tree".
Merzig, the capital of the district Merzig-Wadern, in Saarland – Kurd merziq "swamp, bog".
Mecher, a village in the commune of Lac de la Haute-Sûre, in Luxembourg – Kurd mexer "ruins".
Mechernich, a town in the district of Euskirchen in North Rhine-Westphalia, – Kurd mexer "ruins", nik "actual".
Throtmanni, the primordial name of the city of Dortmund in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia – Kurd tort "sediment, dregs", man "left, remained"
Saarland, a federal state (or Bundesland) of Germany – Kurd sa "some more", ar "fire".
Kurdish toponyms on the territory of Austria, France and Belgium
In the course of their long trips in search of free land to settle, the Cimbri founded dozens of settlements in Austria, France, Belgium, that are well deciphered with the help of the Kurdish language. Most of them are discussed in the section Cimbri). Here we give only a few examples:
Alès, a commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region in southern France – Kurd. aleş "brush-wood".
Aspach-le-Haut, new commune Aspach-Michelbac in north-eastern France – Kurd. hesp "horse", ax "earth, soi;".
Bussang, a commune in the Vosges department in northeastern France. – Kurd. bûz "ice", seng "stone". Cf. Sarlat.
Dijon, a city, the capital of the Côte-d'Or département, France – Kurd. dijûn "evil".
Merchtem, a municipality in the Belgian province of Flemish Brabant – Kurd merx "fir-tree", tem "smoke".
Meyrin, a municipality of the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland – Kurd. mey "cane, rush", rijîn "to pour".
Meyrueis, a commune in the Lozère département, France – Kurd. mey "cane, rush", rua "animal".
Mecher, a village in the commune of Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Luxembourg – êóðä. mexer "ruins".
Mol, a municipality in the Belgian province of Antwerp – Kurd. mal "home, family".
Murau, a town in the western part of the Austrian federal state of Styria – Kurd. mûr "block, log" (maybe better mar "snake"), av "water".
Najac, a commune in the Aveyron department, France. – Kurd. neçak "bad", "unkind".
Sarlat, resort area in the department of Corrèze, France – Kurd. sar "cold", wehşî "rock".
Sarlat-la-Canéda,a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France – Kurd. sar "cold", wehşî "rock".
Spa, a municipality in the the Belgian province of Liège – Kurd spî "white", spahî "cleanness, beauty.
Wavre, a city in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant, – Kurd. warge "site, camp".
Vichy, a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes, France – Kurd. wehşî "wildness".
Vindobona, Latin name of Vienna – Kurd. windabûn "loss, waste, disappearance".
Accumulation of Kurdish place names in Belgium and in the neighboring areas of Germany should must have some explanation. Ancient historians believed that the Belgae had mixed Germanic-Celtic origin, that is, they could not take them either to the Germans or to the Celts. Place names and decoding name of the Belgians via Kurd. belg "leaf" gives grounds to assume that the Belgae were some Kurdish tribe.
Of particular note is that the names of great European rivers are decrypted using the Kurdish language:
Danube (Ger. Donau) – Kurd. don "melted fat", av "water". PIE *dā had sense "liquid", "fat", "flowing water" (Av. dāhnu "river", Ind. dānu "oozing fluid", Arm. tamuk "wet", Gr. δημός "human or animal fat", Alb. dhjamë "fat, bacon", Ger. Ton "clay").
Rhine, a river – Kurd. rêjin "to pour", rêjne "shower".
Neckar, a river, rt of the Rhine – Kurd. niqar "silver".
Wavre, a town in the Belgian province of Walloon Brabant – Kurd warge "site, camp".