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Toponymic survey in Eurasia / Ancient Anglo-Saxon Place Names in Continental Europe.

Ancient Anglo-Saxon Place Names in Continental Europe.

The ancestral home of the Anglo-Saxons was localized by graphic-analytical method in the ethno-producing area between the Sluch, Pripyat, and Teteriv Rivers (see the section Germanic Tribes in the Eastern Europe at the Bronze Age). At one time most Anglo-Saxons migrated to the British Isles, but some of their groups chose other ways. Places of their settlements both on the ancestral home, and on other parts of the continent have been left in tononims which kept to our days. The Anglo-Saxon toponyms were searched among the names of geographical objects, which can not be deciphered using the languages of the local population. The etymological dictionary of the Old English language (HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974) was used for this aim as also the Anglo-Saxon dictionary (HALL John R. CLARK. 1916) was. During the search, its methods were improved, and some regularities were revealed too. As a result, more than six hundred possible Anglo-Saxon place names were found on the space of continental Europe, some of which can be attributed to random coincidences. More confidence have those of them, which to some extent correspond to the peculiarities of localities or form clusters or chains that can reflect the routes of the migrants. The complete list of place names is submitted separately but some regularities and peculiarities in their composition, as well as the most convincing cases will be given here.

A great part of Anglo-Saxon place names in Eastern Europe could origin from OE mearc, mearca "border", "sign", "county", "designated space". These are the names of localities like Markovo, Markovó, Markino and similar. Only in Russia villages of Markovo were recorded about one hundred. They also meet in Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, and Bulgaria. Having a good phonetic correspondence the Old English words are well suited to the names of settlements according their meaning. It is noteworthy that they are distributed among other place names of Anglo-Saxon origin. Of course, some part of them, which cannot be identified, could receive a name from a person Mark, but there should not be numerous. This name was not so popular in Russia for that the anthroponyms derived from it were much larger in number than others, as it was discovered. For example, even the most widespread Russian name Ivan was used twice lesser for calling settlements.

Almost half of the found place names contain the final formant -tyn/-tin/-ten/-den. The fact that in Ukraine there are several tens of place names having a final formant -tyn was noted by Igor Danyluk, one of the readers of my site. At first glance, this formant could be an extension of the possessive suffix -yn, but analogous formant type -nyn, -ryn, -byn, and similar almost never occur in Ukraine. In this connection, it was suggested that the word tyn as a component of a complex name has its particular meaning.

The search for the origin of this word in several languages resulted that the most suitable is OE tūn "fence", "field", "court", "house", "housing", "village", "city" (Eng town). The word has parallels in other Germanic and Celtic languages. Slavic word tyn was borrowed from some German language and has now the sense "fence" but earlier it was used for settlements of different kinds, as evidenced by such names as Kozya-tyn, Krivo-tyn, Pravu-tyn, Lyubo-tyn having Ukrainian partial word. It can be assumed that the word tyn in sense "village" was spread also among the multilingual population of Ukraine, as there are examples of the adhesion of this word with a non-Germanic and non-Slavic words. For example, the place name Zhukotyn is decoded by Chuv çaka "linden" and this explanation can be plausible as there are a lot of lime trees in the village at present. However the second partial word of this name has nothing similar in the Chuvash language. Obviously, the component -tyn meaning "village" has also been used but by the Bulgars populated Carpathians at some time.

Names of settlements with similar formants tyn/tin/ten/den are often found in Central Europe, are available even in Britain, where, in addition, many settlements contain formant town. They may have not only Germanic but also Celtic origin, according to Irl. dun(um) and Gal. dinum. This complicates searching for the Anglo-Saxon place names of this type. In this connection, place names with the format den are not considered in most cases as having a priori Celtic origin. A few exceptions were made in cases where only Old English matches were found for the first part of the word (for example, Dresden, Breddin).

Place-names having the root tyn are extremely common in the Czech Republic such as Týn nad Bečevou, Týn nad Vltavou, Týneček, Hrochův Týnec, Týnišťko, Týništ, Týnec, Týnec nad Labem, Týnec nad Sázavou. Not all of these settlements were founded by the Anglo-Saxons, especially that part of them which have Slavic suffix, therefore they were not taken into account

Below are given some examples of names of possible Anglo-Saxon origin scattered throughout Eastern and Central Europe, which contain the component -tyn/-tin/-ten/-den:

Avratyn, villages in Lubar district of Zhytomyr Region and in Volochysk district of Khmelnytsky Region – OE æfre "constant", tūn "village".

Boratyn, Boryatyn, Boryatynj, about ten village in different regions of Ukraine, Poland, and Russia – OE bora "son", tūn "village".

Burtyn, a village in Polonne district of Khmelnytski Region – OE būr "a peasant", tūn "village".

Delatyn, a town in Nadvirna distryct of Ivano-Frankivsk Region – dǽl, dell "valley", tūn "village". The town indeed is located in a valley (see the photo at left).

Dirdyn, a village near the town of Horodishche in Cherkassy Region – OE đir “a female servant”, tūn "village".

Dresden, the capital city of Saxony in Germany – OE dærst (dræst) „leaven, dregs, refuse“, tūn "village".

Husiatyn, a town in Ternopil Region, the village of Husiatyn in Chemerivtsi district of Khmelnytski Region – hyse "a son", "lad", "warrior", tūn "village".

Maniatyn, a village iv Slavuta district of Khmelnytski Region – OE manian "to prevent", "to protect", tūn "village".

Myrotyn, a village in Zdolbuniv district of Rivne Region – OE mære "border", tūn "village".

Obertyn, a village in Tlumach district of Ivano-Frankivsk Region – OE ofer "over", "high", tūn "village".

Roggentin, a municipality in the Rostock district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. – OS roggo "rye", tūn "village". Obviously, the ancestors of the inhabitants of this commune were engaged in agriculture. Its coat of arms is the so-called "lily", which in fact is a modified form of sheaf (for more details, see Cultural Substratum). Thus, the coat of arms confirms the made explanation of the place name.

Rukhotyn, a village in Khotyn district of Chernivtsi Region – OE rūh "raw, rough", tūn "village";

Rybotyn, a village in Korop district of Chernihiv Region – OE rūwa "cover, covering", tūn "village";

Skowiatyn, a village in Borshiv district of Ternopil Region – OE scuwa "shade", "protection", tūn "village";

Wettin, a town in the Saalekreis district of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany – OE wæt "wet, moist", tūn "village".

Special part of names of this type are containing the stem Khotyn (Hotin). It is generally accepted their Slavic origin, but more likely that initial forms of the word consists of two Old English words heah "high" and tūn "village". This interpretation is completely justifiable at least for the city of Khotyn in the Chernivtsi region, since it is located on the high bank of the Dniester. Names of this type are found in several countries:

Ukraine – Except the city of Khotyn, the same name have three villages in Rivne region, also there are two villages Khotynivka in Chernihiv and Zhytomyr Regions, and the village of Khoten' in the Khmelnitsky region, and the village of Khotin' in Sumy region. It is true the last two names may have Ukrainian origin.

Belarus – the village of Khotynychi (Brest Region).

Russia – the village of Khotynets (Oryol Region).

Poland – the village of Chotyniec in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship.

Slovakia – the village of Chotín in Komárno District in the Nitra Region.

Czech republik – the village of Chotyně in Liberec District and the village of Chotyněves n Litoměřice District in the Ústí nad Labem Region.

No less common toponyms are Konotop and similar, found in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, and Russia:

Ukraine – the city of Konotop in Sumy Region, the villages of Konotop in Shepetivka district of Khmelnytski Region and in Horodnia district of Chernihiv Region, a village of Konotopy in Sokal district of Lviv Region.

Belarus – the villages of Konotop in Rudsk rural selsoviet of Ivanava district, in Bobrik selsoviet of Pinsk district of Brest Region and in Narovla district of Homel Region, the villages of Konotopy in Zhabinka district of Brest Region and Kapyl district of Minsk Region.

Poland – the villages of Konotop in Gmina Kolsko, Nowa Sól County, Lubusz Voivodeship, Gmina Drawno, Choszczno County, West Pomeranian Voivodship, Gmina Drawsko Pomorskie, West Pomeranian Voivodship, two villages of Konotopa in Gmina Ożarów Mazowiecki, Warsaw West County and Gmina Strzegowo, Mława County, Masovian Voivodeship, two hamlets of Konotopa in Gmina Brańsk, Bielsk County, Podlaskie Voivodeship and in Gmina Ruda-Huta, Chełm County of Lublin Voivodship, the village of Komotopie in Gmina Kikół, Lipnowo Couny of Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship

Russia – the village of Komotop in Kromy district of Orel Region.

The names look completely Slavic and have a transparent interpretation (Rus. kon' "a horse", topit' "to sink"), but at the same time, reasonable doubts arise not only because of their large number, but also because of the interpretation itself. Not only horses, but also other cattle, for example, oxen, could drown in a swampy dream, but there were no names for Volotopes at all. In addition, in Poland, where they are most of all, these place names stretch as a strip among other Anglo-Saxon ones. This was the reason to look for another explanation for them. Only Old English could provide such an opportunity. The first part of the name comes from OE cyne-, which is found only in compound words and means "royal" (HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974: 67). This word, as well as king, German König and others similar Germanic words meaning "king" originate out of Gmc. *kunja "kin", "noble origins" (KLUGE F. 1989: 397). Obviously OE. cyne- is a later modification of the Old Germanic, which is phonetically better suited to the names of this type. The second part of the name goes back to OE topp "top, summit". Thus, the original name could sound like Kunyatop, and the Slavs were rethought it as horse-sinking. Settlements with this name could be the residence of the tribal elite. And a few other toponyms contain the same Gmc *kunja:

Two villages Konyatyn in Sosnytsia district of Chernihiv Region and in Putyla district of Chernivtsi Region, the village of Konyatino in Cherepovets district of Vologda Region, the village of Konyatinskaya in Rostov-Minsk district rural settlement, Ustyansky district of Arkhangelsk Region. – Gmc. *kunja "kin", "noble origin" and OE tūn "town".

The village of Konyatin in the Chernihiv region is located in the center of the sites of the Sosnitsa culture, which creators were the Anglo-Saxons (see on the map below). Judging by the deciphering of the name, it could be the residence of a local tribal leader. Archeological excavations in this village could confirm this assumption. The spread of the monuments of the Soshnitsa culture also confirms the decoding of place names by means of the Old English language (cf. the maps further)

The spread of the monuments of the Soshnitsa culture

Fragment of the mapArcheology site

The map also shows some sites of the Bondarikha culture and the village of Konyatin.

Another large group of names at first glance does not cause doubts in their Slavic origin. In Ukraine, Moldova, Romania, Poland, the Czech Republic there are about three dozen similar names Okno, Okna, Oknitsa with Ukrainian variants Vikno, Viknyny etc. Already their very number gives reason to doubt that all of them come from an ordinary Slavic appellative okno "window", what has no example, say, in Russia. Searches in different languages convinced that thereare nothing better than OE āc "an oak" for explaining the origin of these place names. This word together with the suffix en could form an Old English adjective ōken, well suited to the name of locality.

The Urheimat of Anglo-Saxons was at first populated by the ancient Italics (forebears of the Latinians, Oscans and Umbrians), then by the Anglo-Saxons, and subsequently by the ancestors of the Slovaks. In more recent history, this space was inhabited by the Slavic tribe of Drevljan, whose capital was the fabled town of Iskorosten. Scribes have clearly tried "to slavicize" the name of this town, now called to simply as Korosten, which no doubt comes close to the name used at ancient times.

The town is located above the Usha River, which meanders along granite banks. Here the English language affords us an opportunity to etymologize the name of the town, using O.E. stān, “stone, rock” and the Cornish care, “rocky ash” presented in the place name Care-brōk (HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974: 43). The root care can also be found in the name of the town of Korostishev, located on the Teteriv’s rocky left bank. If the second part of this toponym derives from O.Eng. sticca, “stick, staff”, the place name can be taken as a whole to mean “ashen stick”. This, at first glance, a convincing explanation of names Korosten and Korostishev are doubtful. The fact, that the mountain ash (Fraxinus ornus) do not grow out in these locality, does not mean much, because common ash-tree is very spread here and the transfer of names of plant's species from one to another is a known phenomenon. Much more objection has the explaination by using the word care, which can have a Celtic origin (Ibid). However, the noun æsc "ash-tree" we find in other local place-names (eg, Barashi, Tarashcha), and this speaks in favor of the proposed etymology.

The name of another town is connected to rocks as well: this is Ovruch, located in the Slovečan-Ovruč Hills on the upper left bank of the Norin’ River. Eng. of rock may be explained as “on rocks” as well as “near rocks,” or "rocky”.

The variant Usha for the Uzh River can actually derive from a more ancient form that was changed by analogy to the name of grass-snake (Ukrainian wuzh). Perhaps the name of the river can also originate from OE æsce "ash-tree". Noting the similarity in the second part of the toponyms Ushomyr and Zhitomyr, we find OE mære “border,” which F. Holthausen corresponds to Lat. mùrus, "wall" (AEW). While one can easily find Ukrainian roots for both toponyms, the English etymology is preferable because we find a correlate to the first part of the word “Zhitomyr” in OE scytta "protection". This word is logically near to the word value "border", especially since Zhitomyr is located at the region’s southern border (see the map below). Whether OE scytta has any relation to the Greek name for the Scythians, or it is merely a coincidence, remains unclear. Another defensive border extended across Ushomyr right near to Korosten’, which was likely the capital of the Anglo-Saxons in those ancient times.

At left: Anglo-Saxon place names on the ancestral homeland of the Anglo-Saxons (its borders are marked with red dots) and out of it on new places of settlements.

As a whole, we can etymologize nearly forty local place names by means of the English language. Some of them are listed below:

Barashia village in Yemelchine district of Zhitomyr Region – OE bǽr “abandoned, bare”, ǽsñ “ash-tree”.

Fenevychi, a village at the bank of the upper Teteriv River – OE fenn "swamp", wīc “house, village”.

Khodory, Khodorkiv, and Khodurkiv, villages in Zhitomyr Region – OE. fōdor “food, feed”.

Kyrdany, a village near Ovruch – OE cyrten "beautiful”.

Latovnia, a river, right tributary (rt.) of the Ten’ka, rt of the Tnia, rt of the Sluch – OE latteow "leader”.

Mozyr’, a city, Belarus – OE. Maser-feld to N.Gmc. mosurr "maple" (AEW).

Narovlia/ the town on the right bank of the Pripjat’ River – OE nearu “narrow” and wæl “pool, source”.

Olmany, a village in Belarus, southeast of the town of Stolin – OE oll “to insult, abuse,”mann, manna “a man” man “fault, sin”.

Prypiat’, a river, rt of the Dnieper – OE frio "free", frea “lord, god”, pytt “a hole, pool, source”.

Rikhta, a river, lt of the Trostianycia, rt of the Irsha – OE riht, ryht “right, direct”.

Syzany, a village south of the Homel’ Region in Belarus – OE. sessian “to grow quiet”.

Zhelon’, a river, rt of the Low Prypiat’ – OE scielian “to part”.

Zherev, a river, lt of the Už, and r Žereva, lt of the Teteriv, rt of the Dnieper – O.Eng. gierwan "to boil” or "to decorate” (both meanings suit the toponyms, depending on the character of the respective river).

The Anglo-Saxons migrated from their Urheimat in different directions, what is clearly demonstrated by place names. English roots in the name of the Irpin’ River (Old Ukrainian Irpen’) are especially ly transparent.

At right: The Irpen' River.
Photo from the site Foto.ua

This river has a wide boggy valley that should have to be boggier in ancient times. Therefore OE *earfenn, compiled by OE ear, meaning 1. "lake" or 2. “ground”, and OE. fenn “bog, silt”, could have a sense “sludgy lake” or “boggy ground”. The name the city Fastiw (Fastov) is obviously arisen from OE fǽst “strong, fast" and īw, eow “yew-tree”. OE swiera “neck”, “ravine, valley” suits for decoding the name of the village of Skwyra on the Skwyrka River, if k after s is epenthesis, ie inserted sound to give greater expression to the word. In favor of the proposed etymology says the name of the village of Krivosheino formed from Ukrainian words meaning “curved neck” which can be loan translation of an older name. The village is located on the river bend.

Other place names of Anglo-Saxon origin in the country west of the Dnieper can be mentioned above Awratyn, Dyrdany and as follows:

Korsun’ of Shevchenko, a town in Cherkassy Region, two villages in Belorus, one in Donetsk Region (Ukraine), one in Orel Region (Russia) and near-by rivers having the name Korsun', the village of Korsyni in Volyn' Region and the vllage of Korsiv in Lviv Region – F. Holthausen in his dictionary cites OE cors "cane, rush" present in place names but believes that it is borrowed from Celtic (HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974:58) what else needs to be proved. Another possibility is OE cursian "to plait".

Myrcha, villages, one west of the town Dymer in Kiev Region, another south of the town of Malin in Zhitomyr Region and one else in Transcarpathia on border with Slovakia – OE mirce "murky, dark, black".

Smela, a town, Cherkassy Region – the name of the town can have as Slavic as Anglo-Saxon origin. (Eng smile or smell) but OE smiellan "to strike, hit, burst" suits best of all taking in consideration the diphthong in the old variant of the city's name.

Tal, a river, rt the Teteriw, lt of the Dnieper – OE dǽl “valley”.

Tarashcha, a town, Kiev Region – OE đurre “dry”, ǽsc “ash-tree”.

Tetiew, a town, Kiev Region – OE tætan “to gladden, coddle”.

Place names being decoded by means of Old English out of the Anglo-Saxon Urheimat but on the space of the East-Třynec culture, which belonged to the Germanic people, affirm the migration of Anglo-Saxons eastward across the Dnieper and to the southeast, where the Ssinitsa culture was spread as a variant of the Tshinets. In the basin of the Upper Dnieper there are many such river names as Rekta, Rekhta, Rikhtaand at the same time the same river can be called Rekta, Resta, Rista:

The plurality of variants and the general large number of these hydronyms in the Upper Dnieper region indicate a sort of their autochthonousness in the region TOPOROV V.N., TRUBACHOV O.N. 1962, 204-205).

Experts believe that the etymology of all these names is very difficult, because neither in Slavonic, nor in the Baltic, nor in Iranian languages there is good correspondence. As a variant, it is proposed Lith riešutas, rieksts "walnut, hazelnut", but the connection of these words with all forms of hydronyms is problematic (ibid, 204). On the contrary, OE riht, ryht "right, straight" and ræst, rest "quiet, calm" are well suited phonetically and according to the meaning. With the help of the Old English language on the Left Bank, in the Desna and Seym basin, one can find the interpretation of many other unclear toponyms:

Brech, a river, lt of the Snov River, rt of the Desna – OE brec “sound, noise”.

Bryansk (chronicle Bryn'), a city – OE bryne "fire".

Buryn’, a town, Sumy Region – OE burna “spring, source”.

Byrliwka, a village, Drabiv district, Cherkassy Region – OE byrla "body".

Dykanka, atown, Poltava Region – OE đicce "thick", anga "thorn, edge".

Ichnia, a town, Chernihiv Region – OE eacnian "to add".

Iwot, villages, one to the east of the town Novhorod-Siverski and another in the north of Bryansk Region in Russia, Ivotka, Ivotok Rivers – OE ea "river", wōð "nois, sound".

Kharkov, a city – OE hearg "temple, altar, sanctuary".

Khvastovichi, a village in south of Kaluga Region in Russia – OE fǽst "strong, fast, firm" and īw, eow "yew-tree".

Klewen', a river, rt of the Seym River – OE cliewen “a clew”.

Nerussa, a river, lt of the Desna – OE nearu "narrow", essian "to waste". Cf. Svessa.

Resseta, a river, rt of the Zhizdra, lt of the Oka – OE rǽs "running" (from rǽsan "to race, hurry") or rīsan "to rise" and seađ "spring, source".

Romodan, a town, Myrhorod district, Poltava Region – OE rūma "space", OE dān "humid place".

Romny, a town, Sumy Region – OE romian “to seek, aim”.

Senkiw, a town, Poltava district – OE sencan “to dip, sink”.

Swessa, a river, lt of the Ivotka, lt of the Desna, the town of Svessa in Sumy district – OE swǽs “peculiar, pleasant, beloved”, essian "to waste".

Sviga, a river, lt of the Desna – OE swigian “to be silent”.

Sev, a river, lt of the Nerussa, lt of the Desna – OE seaw “sap, moisture”.

Seym, a river, lt of the Desna – OE seam "side, seam".

Smiach, a river, rt of the Snov, rt of the Desna – OE smieć “smoke, steam”.

Sozh, a river, lt of the Dnieper – OE socian “to boil”.

Ul, a river, lt of the Sev River, lt of the Nerussa, lt of the Desna – OE ule “owl”.

Volfa, a river, lt of the Seym – OE wulf “wolf”.

Vytebet', a river, lt of the Zhizdra River, rt of the Oka – OE wid(e) "wide", bedd "bed, river-bed".

Yagotyn, a town in Kiev Region – OE iegođ "a little island".

Quite a lot of place names with the final formant – tyn among the considered at the beginning of this section are located in Western Ukraine. In this case, other place names here may have Anglo-Saxon origin too. For example as follows:

Bar, the district center in Vinnytsia Region – OE. bār "boar".

Khodoriv, the district center in Lviv Region – OE. fōdor “food, feed”.

Korsyni, a village in Rozhyshche district of Volyn' Region – see Korsun'.

Korsiv, a village in Brody district of Vinnytsia Region – see Korsun'.

Rashkiw, two villages in Ukraine, one of them in Ivano-Frankivsk Region and another in Chernivtsi Region, one village in Moldova. In addition, the city with similar names are available in Russia, Poland, Bulgaria, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina – OE ræscan "to tremble, shake". This meaning is not suitable for the names of settlements, especially since there are quite a few of them. Most likely, the Old English word is related to the Old Icelandic raska "sway", "move", "displace". The last two values are quite suitable for the names given by the migrating people.

Rykhtychi, a village in Drohobych district of Lviv Region – OE riht, ryht "right".

Svirzh, a river, lt of the Dniester River – OE swiera "neck", "ravine".

Strypa, a river, lt of the Dniester River – the name of the river can have as Anglo-Saxrjy and Teutonic origin (OE. strīpan "to stripe", MLG. strīpe “a stripe”}.

Vinnytsia, the region center – OE winn "toil, trouble, hardship".

ñ. Wendychany, a village in Mohyliv-Podilski district of Vinnytsia region – OE wendan "to turn", cinn “chin”.

Win’kiwtsi, the district center in Vinnytsia Region – OE. winc "to wink", hīw "appearance, form".

The list of the place names of the Anglo-Saxon origin while further research is complemented and corrected, what requires a permanent correcting illustrative maps and it's pretty hard work which also harm the quality of cards. In this regard, the new additions and removal of random coincidences will be placed in the system Google Map (see below)

On the map the most part of Anglo-Saxon place name are indicated by dark-red point. The settlements of Markovo, Markino and similar have purple color. Hydronyms are marked in azure.

Red space is the ancestral home of the Anglo-Saxons. The yellow – Sarmatia. The red asterisks mark the battlefields at Adrianople (378) and on the Catalaunian Plains (451) which in the Alans took part.
The map also shows the village of Konyatyn, Chernihiv region, which was supposedly the residence of a local tribal leader.

On the map you can see that the densest cluster of Anglo-Saxon place names is located on the Urheimat of the Anglo-Saxons and the adjacent territory of Right-Bank Ukraine. There are quite a lot of place names on the Left-bank Ukraine too. In general, they refer the space of Sosnitska culture, a local option of Trzciniec Culture recognized by us as to be Germanic. A reliable anchors for place names on Right-bank Ukraine outside the Urheimat are absent, so the similarity of some of these to Old English words could be accidental. But, nevertheless, their disposition has a certain regularity, because outside of Ukraine they are drawn toward Germany by two bands. The one of the bands runs along the Carpathian Mountains and goes to Bohemia through the Moravian Gate (the height of the pass just 310 meters), and the other passes through Central Poland.

A good evidence of the Anglo-Saxons stay in Poland can be decoding name of the village Czorsztyn in Lesser Poland Voivodeship as "jutting rock" (OE. scorian "to jut out", stān "stone, rock"). In this village, there is really projecting rock on the shore of the reservoir formed by the river Dunajec (see. the photo at right). Similar words are or were present in German (OHG N. scorra "rock", Stein "stone"). In addition, there are several settlements in Poland, which contain the component sztyn (Wolsztyn, Falshtyn and possibly others), all they can have as German (Teutonic) as Anglo-Saxon origin. Anglo-Saxon origin may be assumed more justified only if they are part of a chain or cluster of names. Nevertheless many place names in the band passing through the Central Poland have clear Anglo-Saxon origin. For example, the name of the village of Kornati can be interpreted using OE. corn "grain", ate "oats".

Searching names of Anglo-Saxon origin in Germany was only for having the final formant -tyn/-tin/-ten/, one of their characteristic features, because the Old ancient High German zūn corresponds to Germanic *tūn. It could be transformed in zen but not ten. There are a lot of names with the final formant zen (Aerzen, Bautzen, Kotzen, Laatzen, Uelzen et al.) in Lower Saxony and in neighboring lands, but no Old English words have been found that could fit for this formant. A few examples of the German place names of such type, that could have Anglo-Saxon origin are submitted at the beginning of the section.

When looking for Anglo-Saxon toponyms on the territory of Ukraine, it was noted that some of them have matches in Central Russia. In addition to the above-mentioned villages of Boryatyn in the Bryansk, Penza and Vologda regions, three villages in Kaluga and two villages in the Lipetsk region have the names Baryatino of the same origin. The name of the Ukrainian city Chortkiv, which is explained with OE ceart "wasteland, wild public land" and gief "gift", corresponds to the names of the Russian villages of Chertkovo in the Rostov, Penza and Vladimir Regions. The same word ceart could be reflected in other languages or dialects as "kart" and we find it in the Ukrainian toponym Karatamish, Kartamysh, Kartanash and in the names of three Russian villages of Kartmazovo in the Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and Vladimir Regions.

These cases prompted a targeted search for Anglo-Saxon place names in Central Russia. They were conducted very cautiously, because the toponyms of non-Slavic origin could be left by the northern Germans or Balts. For example, such names as Fishovo can have both Anglo-Saxon and North German origin (OE fisc and OIcl fiskr "fish"), and such as Ievlevo, Ievkovo can be both Anglo-Saxon and Baltic (OE. īw, eow "yew" and Lith., Let. ieva "bird-cherry"). As for the North Germanic place names, the area of their spread is mainly located on the territory of Belarus and Latvia, where they were left by the northern Germans during their migration from the ancestral home to Scandinavia (see the Sextion North Germanic Place Names in Belorus, Baltic States, and Russia. At the same time, the presence of the Varangians in Eastern Europe is displayed in place names very insignificantly:

Nowhere in Russia was there such Scandinavian colonization as in England and Iceland. In addition, the Swedes had no reason for mass emigration to the opposite shore of the Baltic Sea. In their own country there were rich and fertile areas (SAWER PITER, 2002: 241-242)

Of course, there are undoubtedly North German toponyms in Russia, for example, the name of Lake Seliger is in good agreement with OIcl. seligr, sjaligr "beautiful". Accordingly, close to them located place names can with agreat likelihood be North Germanic too.

If we talk about the Baltic toponymy, then according to the experts' testimony, it is absent in the territory east of Moscow and north of the Upper Volga, being widespread in the Smolensk, Pskov, Kaluga, Moscow, Orel Regions (VASILIEV VALERIY L. 2015: 175). A number of toponyms of the supposed Anglo-Saxon origin were also found in these areas and they can not be attributed to the Baltic. And, as it turned out in the process of searching, many common names of settlements in Russia, which do not have a convincing interpretation in Russian, are deciphered precisely with the help of Old English. First of all, they include, except the already mentioned Markovo (97 cases), such names: Levkovo (25), Churilovo (24), Shadrino (24), Ryazanovo (22), Boldino (11).m These names have such explanations:

Levkovo, Levkovka, Levkov a.o. – OE. lēf "weak", cofa "hut, cabin".

Curilovo – there was not found any reliable interpretation of the toponym in Russian, allegedly originating out of the name Churilo, which itself has no explanation. The high prevalence of the place name suggests that it should be based on a commonly used word and such is proposed by OE. ceorl "a man, peasant, husband", which corresponds with Eng. churl.

Boldino – OE bold "house, home" is good suitable by meaning and phonetically. So could be called the individual estates of landowners.

The main part of the toponyms of Russia of Anglo-Saxon origin is concentrated in the Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Tver, Vologda, Kostroma, Ivanovo, Nizhny Novgorod and Novgorod Regions. Here are the most convincing examples of the Anglo-Saxon place names of these places:

Berkino, villages in Moscow and Ivanovo Regions, Berkovo, a village in Vladimir Region – OE berc "birch".

Firstovo, two villages ib Nizhniy Novgorod Region and one in Moscow Region – OE fyrst "firsy".

Fundrikovo, a village, Semyonov district, Nizhny Novgorod Region – OE fundian "strive for, wish", ric "domination, government, power".

Kotlas, a town in Arkhangelsk Region – OE cot "hut, cabin", læs "pasture".

Linda, a village in town district Bor, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Lindy, a village, Kineshma district, Ivanovo Region OE lind "linden".

Moscow (Moskova in chronicle), the capital of Russia, Moskva, villages in Tver and Novgorod Regions – OE mos "bog, swamp", cofa "a hut, cabin".

Murom, a city, Vladimir Region – OE mūr wall", ōm "rust".

Ryazan, a city – 1. OE rāsian "explore, investigate". 2. OE rācian "ãîñïîäñòâîâàòü".

Suzdal, a town, the center of the district, Vladimir Region – OE swæs "peculiar, pleasant, beloved", dale "valley". Cf. Sösdala, a locality in Sweden.

Tver', the city, which name in chronicles is recorded in forms T'fѣr', T'khvѣr' and similar – OE. đwære "connected", "united", "pleasant".

Fursovo, seven villages in Kaluga, Ryazan, Tula, and Kirov Regions – OE fyrs "furze, gorse, bramble".

Shenkursk, a town, Arkhangelsk Region – OE scencan "to pour, give to drink, present", ūr "richness, wealth".

Yurlovo, three villages in Moscow Region – OE eorl "noble man, warrior".

The highest density of Anglo-Saxon toponyms is observed on the territory of the former Vladimir-Suzdal principality. From time immemorial, these places were inhabited by Finno-Ugric tribes, and at the end of the first millennium AD the Slavic tribe of Vyatichi advanced here too. The Vyatichi according to the chronicles were the most backward of all the Slavs and did not even create own state in their homeland in the Oka basin, so it is surprising that the newly created Vladimir-Suzdal principality quickly seized the lead from Kiev. Even Russian historians are amazed at this. In particular, V.O. Kliuchevskiy wrote that there is no clear answer to the question of where from the new Upper Volga Rus' grew up (KLYUCHEVSKY V.O. 1956: 272). If, however, to agree that the most ancient cities of this region were founded by the Anglo-Saxons, it must be assumed that they were who laid the foundations of statehood here, uniting under their domination disparate native tribes. However, during the heyday of the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, the Anglo-Saxons, apparently, were already fully assimilated by more larg local population.

We see a similar picture in the steppes of Ukraine, where the Anglo-Saxes have become the ruling elite in the union of Sarmatian tribes of different ethnicity (see sections The Sarmatians and Alans – Angles – Saxons). Due to the repeated population change in the Northern Black Sea Coast, local toponymy developed already in historical times, but quite a few ancient geographical names of different origins were preserved on the Donbas, among which you can find Anglo-Saxon, for example:

Kramatorsk– OE crammian "to press something into something else". The previous name Kram was added by the name of the Torets River.

Holmivs'kyi, a twon in Donetsk Region – OE. holm «wave, sea, water»

Hladosove (Gladosove), a twon in Donetsk Region – OE glæd «shining, gracious, kind», ōs «pagan divinity».

At left: The Mius River
Photo of Îlga GOK. Rostov-on-Don.

Dyliivka, a twon in Donetsk Region – OE. dyle «dill».

Korsun', a village and a river in Donetsk Region – OE cursian «to plait».

Mius, a river flowing into the Sea of Azov – OE meos "swamp, bog".

Vergulivka (Verhulivka) i Perevals'k district of Luhans'k Region – OE wergulu «nettle».

The complete List of Anglo-Saxon Place Names in Continental Europe

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