The theme of Finno-Ugric place names on the vast Eurasian space is extremely wide. Only the examination of place names of Russian North, devoted mainly Finno-Ugric ones, required from the known Russian scholar forty years of hard work, which results were presented in four volumes (MATVEEV A.K. 2001 – 2015). This article discusses only place names left by the Finno-Ugrians on areas of their primary residence (se the map below).
Fig. 8. The map of Finno-Ugric habitats.
In the Upper Volga basin there are a large number of place names which cannot be deciphered either by the Finno-Ugric or Slavic languages, but they can be deciphered by means of Chuvash or Old English. Those place names which are deciphered by Chuvash were left by Turkic tribes, akin to the later Bulgars. They came to these places in the 3rd mill. BC. and became the creators of Fatyanovo culture belonging to Corded Ware ones. Their relatives came to Finland, what is also testified in toponymy. For example, the name of the Finnish capital Helsinki can be decoded as "hibernation" taking into account Chuv. khĕl “winter”, sĕnk, sĕnkke “to slumber, doze”, “somnolence” (see the section Proto-Bulgarish Place Names in Eastern Europe and Proto-Bulgarish Place Names in Central and Northern Europe.)
The toponyms, which are deciphered by Old English, were left by the Anglo-Saxons, who arrived to the Upper Volga in the era of the Great Migration of Peoples (see the sections Ancient Anglo-Saxon Place Names in Continental Europe and Anglo-Saxons at Sources of Russian Power). Thus, in order not to be zealous in vain, when studying place names of Northern Russia, in difficult cases, you can try to use Chuvash or Old English to decipher them. For example, inconclusive explanations on the Finnish basis of hydronyms Nerl lose their meaning with good compliance Chuv. nĕrlĕ "beautiful". Likewise deciphering by Finnish means of the name of the capital of Russia (chronicle Moscowa) is unsuccessful, when there is an excellent explanation by the OE mos "bog, swamp", cofa "hut, cabin".
However, involving the Chuvash language for the analysis of the toponymy, an uncertainty may be as it occurs in the case of the interpretation of the widespread formant enga for hydronyms. In the Russian North, there are many such hydronyms as Yemenga, Erzenga, Ishenga, Kerzenga, Kershenga, Kirzhenga, Kokshenga, Kurenga, Padenga, Mekhrenga, etc. A.K. Matveyev believes that "the possibilities of explaining the formant in the Finno-Ugric base are diverse (Nenets yeŋa "river", Khant yiŋk "water", Mari, eŋer "river"), but stops at the Mari word, where r is the word-formative suffix (MATVEYEV A.K. 1969: 50) However, in most cases, problems arise with decoding stems. At the same time, this formant is well corresponds Chuv. dial. enkkĕ "willow" and many names get a logical explanation. For example, the name of the Kichmenga River can be explained as a "sad willow" (Chuv. kichem "sad"), and Kokshenga – "dry willow" (Chuv. kakshya "to dry up"). It is true, doubts arise that a large number of hydronyms may contain the word "willow"; the word "river" is much better suited to the meaning. In the same time, hydronyms of this type in Murmansk Region (for example, Kurenga) can have only Finno-Ugric origin. On the other hand, a part of the names may also have Anglo-Saxon origin when accreting the suffix -en with OE gē "distrivt, side, land". Obviously, the format enga has a heterogeneous origin.
Place names confirm location of ethno-producing areas on which distinct Finno-Ugric languages were arisen on Finno-Ugric space between the Volga and the Don rivers. Some place names on these areas or near them can be interpreted by means just those languages, which original dialect was formed there. Also place names can trace the path of resettlement of the Finno-Ugric peoples from their historical homeland to the current place of residence. Most of these ways are reflected in the names of settlements, arranged in chains. Only thees place names may be considered prehistoric, while place names on the modern areas of the Finno-Ugric peoples can be formed in the later times. We will not pay attention on them, it is a subject of other studies.
Finding and deciphering prehistoric Finno-Ugric place names with inevitable amendments and additions will be carried out with the help of Google Map resource(see below).
Finno-Ugric place names on ethno-producing areas and migration routes.
On the map, the place names left by certain Finno-Ugrian peoples during the formation of their primary languages are denoted by points of different colors in accordance with the languages in which they are interpreted. For the individual languages the following colors are adopted: Finnish – dark blue, Sami – yellow, Estonian – burgundy, Veps – red, Hungarian – green, comi – khaki, Moksha – pale violet, Mari – blue, Khanty – brown. The boundaries of the common Finno-Ugric territory are marked in blue, and the boundaries of individual areas are represented by river lines. The color of the lines is black or corresponds to the color of the language in which the iver name can be explained.
When interpreting place names are taken into account, on the one hand, phonological changes in the Finno-Ugric languages, and on the other – pronunciation of native names by newcomers. Some commonality in the phonological processes is observed in Finnish, Veps, and Estonian languages. Here F.-U *š and č were reflected in h, they can be in Russian sh or zh; F.-U. *č' reflects ch.
Some toponyms can be deciphered by means of several languages, so the preference was given to the language in the area of its formation or in the nearest place. Examples of such Oeconyms can be Kashino – 31 cases, Kas'kovo (Kos'kovo) – 20, Kurkino and Kurkovo – 19. The last two names refer in majority to settlements located on the initial Finno-Ugric territory. They can be decrypted using Moksha, Veppsian, Estonian, Finnish and Sami languages. Accordingly, they recieved different interpretation, although uncertainty cannot be overcome (see in the text). The Oeconyms of the Kashino, Kaskovo (Koskovo) mostly mark the paths of migration of Finno-Ugric peoples and are decoded only bymeans of the Finnish, Estonian, and Veps languages. These names were given to settlements on the slash-and-burn cultivated land according the a tradition of swiddening that was practised by Finno-Ugric peopl for centuries. Distinct concentration of these settlements makes it possible to more clearly define their ethnicity.
Finnish place names
The Finnish Urheimat was limited by the Klaz’ma, Oka, And Moskva Ribers. From here a chain of Finnish place names extends towards Finland. The most common toponym of Finnish origin is Kashino (15 cases). Its interpretation and distribution, as well as some other pre-historic Finnish Oeconyms, is given below:
Kalistovo, a village in Moscow Region – Fin kallista "dear, costly"; kallistaa "bend, slope".
Kashino, villages in Kholomogory district of Arkhangelsk Region, Aleksandrov, Kirzhach and Kolchugino districts of Vladimir Region, Gryazovets and Kirillovo districts of Vologda Region, Verkhnelandekhovsky, Vichugsky, Puchezhsky, Yuzhsky and Yuryevets districts of Ivanovo Region, Soligalichsky district of Kostroma Region, Perm district of Perm Region and two villages in Nekouz district (Vereteysk and Latskovo rural settlements) of Yaroslavl Region – Fin. kaski "slash-and-burn cultivated land – a tradition of swiddening that was practised in Finnish forests for centuries". Although the origin of the name out of the Russian appellate kasha "porridge" is possible in isolated cases, it is generally doubtful because of the exceptional nature of the possible motivation for the name. The combination of Finnish consonants sk in this case was reflected in Russian as sh, but could remain unchanged (cf. Kas'kovo).
Kas'kovo, a village in Volosovo district of Leningrad Region – Fin. kaski "slash-and-burn cultivated land – a tradition of swiddening that was practised in Finnish forests for centuries".
Kayvaksa, a village in Leningrad Region – Fin kaivo "well, spring", vaksi"a keeper, guard".
Kerva, a part of the city of Shatura in Moscow Region – Fin keruu "gathering".
Kochemary, a village in Kasimov district of Ryazan Region – Fin kuusi "fir-tree", marja “berry”.
Kos'kovo, villages in Kesovogorsky district of Tver Region and in Tikhvin district of Leningrad Region – Fin. kaski "slash-and-burn cultivated land".
Kotkino, a village in Rybinsk district of Yaroslav Region – Fin. kotka "eagle".
Kovo, a village in Klepiki district of Ryazan Region – Fin kova "hard, firm".
Kurkovo, a village in Selivanov district of Vladimir Region – Fin kurki "crane".
Kurta, a river, lt of the Sulat' River, rt of The Dubna, rt of the Volga – Fin. kurttu "fold, wrinklr".
Likino, a village in Vladimir Region – Fin lika “mud”.
Likino-Dulevo, a town in Moscow Region – Fin lika “mud” (cf. Mari lükö „quagmire“) and Fin tulva „flood, owerflow“. The town is located on the swampy flat country and the both words can reflect the peculiarity of the local landscape.
Matkoma, a river flowimg in Rybinsk lake – Fin matka "a way".
Matkovo, a village in Yaroslavl Region – Finn matka "way".
Myaksa, a village in Vologda Region – Fin maksu "pay, fee".
Nadoksa, a river flowing in Rybinsk lake – Fin nätti "nice", oksa "a branch".
Nadoksa, a village in Yaroslavl Region – the village was named by the river (see above).
Nelidovo, 6 villages – in twos in Vologda Region (Vologda and Sokol districts) and Kostroma Region (Krasnoselsk ans Chukhloma districts), villages in Zavolzhsky district of Ivanovo Region and Pereslavl district of Yaroslavl Region – Fin. neli "four-", tupa (gen. tuvan) "room, cottage".
Oka, a river, rt of the Volga River – Fin joki “a river”;
Parkovo, the village flooded under water of Rybinsk lake – Fin parka "poor".
Peshkovo, villages in Moskow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl Regions – Fin pihka "gallipot".
Pikalevo, a village in Leningrad Region – Fin pikku "little", luu "bone".
Solmanskoye, a village in Vologda Region – Fin solmu "knot".
Staryy Kudom, a town in Ryazan Region – Fin kutoma "weaving".
Suvoroshch, a river, rt of the Klaz’ma River – Finn suo “swamp” and roskat “rubbish”. The river flows on the swampy country.
Tarbeevo, a village in Moscow Region – Fin tarpeen (out of tarve "need").
Tarbinskoye, a village in Moscow Region – as Tarbeevo (see above).
Tasino, a town in Vladimir Region – Fin taso "flat, plain".
Tuma, an urban settlement in Klepikovski district of Ryazan Region – Fin tumma “dark”.
Turgosh', a village in Leningrad Region – Fin turkki "fell, fur", uusi "new".
Varaksino, a village in Vologda Region – Fin varakas "rich".
Vesyegonsk, a town in Tver Region – Finn vesi "water", joki "river".
Yana, a river flooded under water of Rybinsk lake – Fin jano "thirst".
Yukovo, a village in Yaroslavl Region – Fin joukko "crowd".
Yuvino. a village in Klepiki district of Ryazan Region – Fin juova "strip, stripe".
Attention is drawn to the abundance of place names in the area the Oka River to coast of the White Sea and the Barents Sea, containing determinants -Vksha, -Vksa (Koloksha, Kotoksha, Seroksha, Tordoksa, Shomoksa and many other). They have no satisfactory explanation (MATVEEV A.K. 2015: 94-101). Mainly they are the names of small tributaries, so we can take to explanation – Fin. oksa “a twig, branch”, ie "a branching" of a larger river.
Veps place names
Veps ancestors inhabited the area between the Oka, Ugra, and Moscow Rivers. After coming here Bulgars they partly settled in neighboring areas, but mostly were neighbours of newcomers. Veps place names can be such: p>
Kashino, villages in Yukhnovo district of Kaluga Region, Kimovsky and Yasnogorsky districts of Tula Region, Kholm-Zhirkovsky district of Smolensk Region – Veps kas'k "a place for arable land cut down in the forest". Cf. Êàñüêîâî.
Kas'kovo, 3 villages in Dorogobuzh, Glinka and Vyaz'ma districts of Smolensk Region – Veps kas'k "a place for arable land cut down in the forest".
Kas'kovo (Kos'kovo), 2 villages in Baryatino district of Kaluga Region and in Znamenskoye district of Orel Region – Veps kas'k "a place for arable land cut down in the forest".
Kos'kovo, 3 villages in Znamenskoe, Mtsensk and Khotynets districts of Orel Region, 2 villages in Zubtsov district (Vazuza and Dorozhaevo rural settlements) of Tver Region – Veps kas'k "a place for arable land cut down in the forest".
Kurkino, villages in Yukhmov district of Kaluga Region, in Novodugovo district of Smolensk Region ain Kunia district ov Pskov Region – Veps. kur'g' "crane".
Peshkovo, two villages (in Chekhov district of Moscow Region and in Kaluga Region) – Veps pihk "gallipot".
Ryasnya, a village in Tver Region – Veps r'äsnäk "flabby".
Ryasnya, a river, lt of the Tma River, lt of the Volga River – see above.
Severnaya Ryasnya, a river, rt of the Bolshaya Kosha River, lt of the Volga River – see above.
Solmanovo, a village in Moscow Region – Veps sol’m "knot".
Varaksino, villages in Smolensk (Yelnia and Sychev districts) and Kaluga Regions – Veps varakaz "rich".
Vazuza, a river, rt of the Volga River – Veps vez’i “water” and us “new”.
Vazuza, a town – see above
Vyazma, a town in Smolensk Region – Veps vez’i “water” and ma “earth”.
Vyazma, a river, lt of the Dnieper River – the river was named by the town located on it (see above).
Estonian place names
Estonian area was limited by the upper reaches of the Klyazma and Moscow River from the south and by the Volga from the north. Local residents were largely superseded by the Bulgars and migrated to the shores of the Baltic Sea, as evidenced by the string of Estonian place names< mong which the most common is Kashino (12 cases):
Ashevo, a village in Pskov Region– Est ahi "a stove".
Baykovo-1, two villages in Tver and Novgorod Regions – Est paik "site".
Bolshaya ,Sestra, a river, rt of the Lama River – Est sõstar “currants”.
Gavrovo, a village in Pskov Region– Est kaur "loon, diver".
Kashino, villages in Volokolamsk and Istra districts of Moscow Region, Krestets and Khvoyninsky districts of Novgorod Region, Velikoluksky, Krasnogorodsky, Pechotsky, Pskovsky and Pushkinogorski districts of Pskov Region, Andreanopolsky, Kalininsky and Oleninsky districts of Tver Region – Est. kaski "birch".
Kas'kovo, 3 villages in Zapadnodvinsky district of Tver Region, Kunia and Loknya districts of Pskov Region – Est. kask "birch".
Kos'kovo, 5 villages – in twos ones Moscow (Klin and Solnechnogorsk districts) and Pskov (Nevel and Pustoshino districts) Regions and one village in Staritskiy districts of Tver Region – Est. kask "birch".
Kurkino, villages in Kalinin district of Tver Region, in urban district of Shakhovskaya, Moscow Region, and a district of the city of Moscow – Est. kurg "crane".
Kurkovo, a station in Zubtsov district and a village in Kalinin district of Tver Region – Est. kurg "crane".
Kuzhenkovo, a village in Tver Region – Est kuhi "heap", kivi "stone".
Lama, a river, lt of the Shosha, rt of the Volga – Est lame “flat” suits for the local flat country.
Lama, a village in Moscow Region – see above
Lozyevo, a village in Tver Region – Est lage "desert".
Maksatikha, a village in Tver Region – Est makse "pay", tahis "a sign".
Malaya Sestra, a river, rt of the Lama River – Est sõstar “currants”.
Nelidovo, a village in Kalinin district and a town in Tver Region, a village in Volokolamsk district of Moscow Region – Est. neli "four", tuba "room" (pl. toa).
Pskov, a city – Est *pihka (Fin pihka, Est pigi) "gallipot".
Sestra, a river, lt of the Dubna, rt of the Volga – Est sõstar “currants”.
Shimsk, a town in Tver Region – Est himu "eagerness".
Taldom, a town in Moscow Region – Est talu “a hamlet, court”, tamm “oak”.
Uda, a village in Pskov Region – Est oda "pike, lance".
Varaksino, two villages in Smolensk and Tver Regions and a left village in Pskov Region – Est varakas "rich".
Yazhelbitsy, a village in Novgorod Region – Est jahiala "hunting area".
Saami place names
The most northern area of the Saami was limited by the Volga, Klyazma, and two rivers with the same name Nerl. Such location is confirmed mainly by hydronymy. Several Sami place names beyond the Volga scheduled migration path of Saami to the north-west p>
Chebsara, a village in Vologda Region – Lapp chab "safe", sarr' "bilberry".
Klyazma, a river, lt of the Oka River, rt of the Volga – Lapp kūll'es’ “fish”; the second partword of the name -ma is obviously a suffix of a noun.
Kotkino, a village in Zapolyarny district of Nenets Autonomous Okrug – Lapp. kӯrr «eagle».
Kurkino, a village in Maysky rural settlement and a village in Vologda district of Vologda Region – Lapp. kӯrr «crane».
Landekh, a river, lt of the Lukh, rt of the Klaz’ma – Lapp lannt “a poul, slop”, egk "a river" (the river flows on the swampy country). According to A.K. Matveev dense area of names with the formant – Vx is located in the lower reaches of the Klyazma River, mainly in the basin of its left tributary Luh. However, he does not give explanation of this formant.
Loparevo, a village in Kostroma Region – Russian name of Sami people "Lopari".
Moloksha, a river, lt of the Yukhot’ River, rt of the Volga – Lapp mall'k «bend, crook», mallkshe – the verb out of mall'k.
Peshkovo, a village in Ivanovo Region – Lap. peshk "dung" (primarily "gallipot").
Sekha, a river, rt Teza River, lt Klaz'ma River – Lapp sefkhe «to rush, hurry».
Ukhta, a town in Komi Republic, a former village in Sanchurs of Kirov Region, sveral small rivers and lake ib Arlhangelsk Rerion – Lapp vexxte "quick".
Ukhtoma, rivers – lt of the Sogozha; rt of the Northern Dvina; lt of the Nerl, lt of the Klazma – Lapp vexxte "quick".
Uleyma, a river, lt of the Yukhot' River, rt the Volga, higher of the town of the Rybinsk – Lapp vell’m “strait, channel”.
Vokhtoga, a village in Vologda Region – Lapp vuekht “cloud” (or like Vokhtoma). The component of Vokht(V) is one of the variants of a common stem. A. Ahlquist believes that the variant with o- "reminds more the language of the Sami type, whereas the form with u is closer to the Baltic-Finnic-Mordovian-Permian languages" (Ahlquist A. 2000-2: 86)
Vokhtoma, a river, lt of the Viga River, rt of the Unzha River, lt of the Volga – Lapp vexxtenne "quick".
Yukhot’, a river, rt of the Volga – Lapp yukhte “to give a drink, to water”.
Mordvinic place names
The are on the Urheimat of Mordvins few ancestral place names. But nearby, on the Eastern Ukraine Bondarikha culture was spread during the Late Bronze Age. It is associated with the ancestors of Mordvinic Moksha. The analysis of place names on the left bank of the Dnieper has shown that some "dark" of them can be interpreted using the Moksha and Ersya languages.
Ilek, a river, lt of the Psel River – Erz ilyk "force".
Krasivaya Mecha, a river, rt of the Don River – Mord mac’a “shallow”.
Kshen’, a river, rt of the Don River – Mord kshni “iron”.
Kshenskoye, a town in Kursk Region – Mord kshni “iron”.
Kurkino, a village in Kursk and Riazan' districts, and a town in Tula Region – Mok. kurga "mouth".
Kursk, a city – Mok. kura "flood-lands".
Lokhvytsia, a town in Poltava Region – Mok. loftsa "milk".
Mordves, a river, lt of the Osetr River, rt of the Oka – ethnonyms of the Mordvins and Vepses can be hidden in this name.
Orzhitsa, a river, rt of the Sula – Mok orzha "sharp".
Pomokli, a village east of the town of Pereiaslav-Khmelnytsky in Kiev Region – Mok. pomokha "fog", lay “river”.
Psel (Pslo), a river, lt of the Dnieper River – Mok. psi lay "hot river".
Sencha, a village in Sumy Region on the Sula River – Mok sench "a mallard".
Sula, a river, rt of the Dnieper – Mok. s’ula "a gut".
Sula, two villages in Kursk Region (Russia) and Sumy Region (Ukraine) – by the river’s name (see above).
Sumy, a city situated om the river of Sumka (earlier Suma) – Mok. s'uma „trough”.
Supoy, a river, rt of the Dnieper – Erz. s’upav "rich".
Sury, two village in Orel Region – Mok. sura "millet".
Tula, a city – Mok tula “a wedge”.
Komi place names
The Komi area is entirely located in the Region of Nizhny Novgorod, occupying its right-bank part. Here the vast majority of names of Finno-Ugric origin can be decrypted using the language Erzya. Mordvinic tribes Erzya came here later in the recent historical times and were vast majority of local population. However, there were in some places traces of stay in these places of the Komi. Cf/
Barminskiy, an island on the Volga River and the town of Barmino – Komi parma “fir forest”.
Serezha, a river of the Tíosha River – Komi ser “pattern” and ezha “sod, turf”.
Sura, a river, rt of the Volga – Komi shor “a stream”, Khant sor “lake, river”).
Tamboles, a village in the Vyksun district – Komi tom “young” and pelys’ “mountain ash”.
Tyosha, a river, rt of the Oka River – Komi töshchö “hollow”.
The migration of ancient Komi took part across the territory, which is populated now by Mari people. Searching prehistoric toponymy Komi is very difficult. Some place names can be decrypted by meanse of Komi and Mari: Kushnur, Kiknur, Sernur. The main direction of migration paths to modern Komi place of settlement is determined by such place names:
Kil’mez’, a river, rt of the Vyatka River, rt of the Kama River, lt of the Volga – Komi kil’ "dandruff, scurf, scales", mez’, mezd "getting rid of".
Urzhum, a town in Kirov Region – Komi ur "squirrel", zhuöm "fuss, bustle, clutter".
Vad, a lake and the village of Vad in Nizhegorod Region – Komi vad “lake”.
Vatomskiy, a settlement in Nizhegorod Region – Komi votöm "unrope".
Vetluga, a river – Komi vetlyny "to run, wash”, gy “wave”.
Khanty place names
Khanty phonology: F.-U. *s and š were reflected in t, l, F.-U. *č', s' turned in s.
The most part of the area of the Khanty language belongs to the modern-day Mordvinic republic. It is clear that the Mordvinic place names are predominant on this area. However the ancestors of the Khanties left their tracks on historical Urheimat or near it:
Kachimka, a river, rt of the Sura River – Khant kachəm “the water out of snow”. The villages of Russkiy Kachim and Mordovskiy Kachim on the river were called after it.
Meltsany, a village in Mordovia – Khant məltä «to fit in » or məlt'i «a special winter coat» and ni «a wife».
Melsyany, a village in Mordovia – as Melsyany (see above).
Sviyaga, a river, rt of the Volga – Khanty sāwi “clay” joğən “river” (out of common Finno-Ugric *jaka/jaga “river”). The river-bed of the Sviyaga lies in the clayey bedrock.
Bol'shaya Sarka, and MalayaSarka two rivers, lt of the Sura River – Khant *sarqa "fast, swift" (sarəğ “swiftly” and sarqa “not for a long time”).
Terenga, a town in Ulyanovsk Region – Khant tirən "wide, broad", küj "a swamp".
Vertelim, a villave in Mordovia – Khant wərte "red", ilem "heaven".
The following migration way of the Khanties is marked by such place names:
Bavly, a town in Tatarstan – Khant pugel "a village" (out of *puwyl, cf Mansi pawyl "a village"). Cf. Bugulma.
Belebey, a town in Bashkortostan – Khant pelə "a hill", päj " a heap".
Bugulma, a town in Tatarstan – Khant pugel "a village" (out of *puwyl, cf Mansi pawyl "a village"). Cf. Bavly.
Chelabinsk, a city on Ural – Khant t'əly "sign, mark", pyŋ "wart'. Other version by means of Khanty are possible.
Katav, a river, rt of the Yuryuzan’ River, lt of the Ufa River, rt of the Belaya River, rt of the Kama – Khant kötəv "middle".
Lemeza, a river, lt of the Sim River, rt of the Belaya River, lt of the Kama River – Khant lamət' "can-dock".
Sim, a river, rt of the Belaya River, lt of the Kama River – Khant sǒm "a stream".
Sim, a village in Chelyabinsk Region – see above.
Surgut, a city in Siberia – see above.
Surgut, a river, lt oh the Sok River, lt of the Volga – Khant *sor "river, lake" qut' "layer".
Surgut, a settlement in Sergeyevsk district of Samara Region – see above
Tobol, a river, lt of the Irtysh River, lt of the Ob River – Khant t'ǒpəl "tender, sweet".
Tobol, a village in Tyumen Region – see above.
Tyumen, a city in Siberia – Khant t'ami "strong", enə "thick".
Ust’-Katav, a town in Chelyabinsk Region – see above.
Uvat, a village in TYumen' Region – Khant wat "wind".
Yaik, the former name of the Ural River – Khant jej "moss", jəŋk "water".
Yalutorovsk, a town in Tyumen Region – Khant "jəl" "well-spring", t'oryta "to flow".
Udmurt place names
The area of the Udmurt language was placed between the rivers Tsna, Moksha, and Khoper. Now the Modvin place names are predominant in this country, but some deal of the names can be decoded by means of the Udmurt language. A few names mark a migration way of the Udmurts.
Argash, a village in Ulyanovsk Region – Udm argashyny "to argue".
Laishevka, a village as a part of the city of Ulyanovsk – Udm layig "coomb, lowland".
Laishevo, a village in Tatarstan – as Laishevka (see above).
Michkas, a river, lt of the Atmis River, lt of the Moksha River,lt of the Oka – Udm. michkas'kyny "to pul out, hang out".
Narovchat, a town, the admnistrative center of a district and a village in Tamalinski distric in Penza Region – Udm narva "key, dowel", chat "crossing”.
Pachelma, a river, lt of the Vorona river, rt of the Khoper River, lt of the Don – Udm pachylmyny "to be filled".
Pachelma, the administrative center of a district in Penza Region – Udm pachylmyny "to be filled".
Papuzy, a village in Bazarnosyzgan district of Ulyanovsk Region – Udm. papa “a bird”, puz “a nest”.
Simbirsk (a foremer name of the city of Ulyanovsk) – Udm. synan "to comb" (syn "a comb"), pyr "chaff" ("waste").
Vad, a river, lt of the Moksha River, rt of the Oka – Udm vad "otter".
Yaganovka, a village in Penza Region – Udm yag "pine forest", an "a part".
Several attempts were made to decipher the name of the citz of Penza by means of Finno-Ugric languages, but no convincing etymology was found. Both this name and the names of some of the nearest localities (Virga, Kuvaka, Kondel, Ruzayevka, etc.) are well decoded using the Latin language. There is an assumption that some branch of the Italics migrated from their ancestral home towards Central Russia and left their traces in place names (see the section Ancient Greeks and Italics in Ukraine and Russia.)
Mari place names
The area of the Mari language is located on the left banks of the Don till the river Khoper, lt of the Don. The most convincing evidence of the present near this country of the ancestors of the Maris are such:
Arkadak, a town in Saratov Region – joining of Mar arka “hill” and Turk dag "mountain".
Chigla, a river, lt of the Bitiug River, lt of the Don – Mar chygyla “sticky, viscous”.
Inzhavino, a town in Tambov Region – Mar en "most", shava "weak".
Iznair, a river, lt of the Khoper River, lt of the Don – Mar izi "little", eŋer “river”.
Mordovo, a town in Tambov Region – Mar marda "middle".
Rostashi, a village in Arkadak district of Saratov Region – Mar rost'ash "to join, splice".
Savala, a village in Rzhaksa dictrict of Tambov Region and a river, rt of the Khoper River, lt of the Don – Mar save 1. "osier", 2. "paling" + plural suffix -la.
Tamala, a river, rt of the Khoper River, lt of the Don – Mar. tam "taste", ala "pitch".
Tamala, a town in Penza Region – the town was named by the river (see above).
Tambov, a city, the center of a region – Mar. tumo "oak", pu "tree, wood".
Hungarian place names
Hungarian spelling and phonology.
Beginning of a word: F.-U. *k' was reflected in h, F.-U. *s' turned in s (writing sz), F.-U. *č and č' can be reflected as š (writing s) and č (writing cs).
Middle of a word: F.-U. *t was reflected in z, other changes roughly as in beginning.
The area of the Hungarian language is located betw the rivers Khoper and Medeveditsa. Such possible Hungarian place names are found here:
Alontsevo, a village in Kikvidze district of Volgograd Region – Hung elönt "to flood".
Archeda, a river, lt the Medveditsa River, lt of the Don River which has the sinuous river-bed – Hung ár “a current, stream” and sodor “to turn, twirl”. Cf Hung folyo sodra “river current”.
Atkara, a river, lt of the Medveditsa River, rt of the Don – Hung atkarol "to embrace". The town of Atkarsk became its name by the river.
Belgaza, a river, lt of the Medveditsa River, rt of the Don – Hung bel "gut", has "belly". Two villages on the banks of the river became its names by the river.
Eritovka, a hamlet in Millerovo district of Rostov Region – Hung ér "a stream", iz "taste".
Etkara, a village in Atkarsk district of Saratov Region – as Atkara (see above).
Staraya (Old) Kondal, a settlement in Rudnya district of Volgograd Region – Hung konda "swine herd" + suffix -l.
Mashka, a river, lt of the Chir River, rt of the Don, has rived-bed lying on limestone base – Hung mészkő “limestone”.
Setraki, a hamlet in Chertkovo district of Volgograd Region – Hung szétrak "to spred, place".
Sharashenskiy, a hamlet in Alekseevskaya district of Volgograd Region – Hung saros "dirty".
Tokay, a river, rt of the Yelan’ River, rt of the Savala River, rt the Khoper River – cf. Hungarian town of Tokay.
Mansi place names
On the area of Mansi language, most part of which is located in the Chuvash Republic, the only possible track of stay of ancient Nansi is the name of the Volga River, on which right bank was located the Urheimat of Mansi. The Mansi language has a word vol "wide and open part of a river" that suits well for the wide Volga. There are on the modern-day territory of Mansi the Volja River, where Mans jā means "a river". A. Alkvyst argues that -ga is a "river suffix" in hydronyms and gives examples such as Urga, Bazyrga, Luturga, and others (AHLQUIST A. 2000-1: 27). In the Komi language, there is the word gy "wave", which may have originated from FU *ka (we see it in the name of the river Vetluga). Therefore, we can assume that the Mansi language also had a similar word in which k was reflected in j in the middle of the word, according to Mansi's phonology. In this case, this word coincided with jā and a contamination occurred. However, this is only an assumption, but there is a hope that the traces of Mansi remain in other toponyms