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The Scytho-Sarmatian Problems / Scythian Onomasticon

Scythian Onomasticon


Abbreviations


For the research of the connections between the Scythian and Thracian languages, V. Petrov has set up the Scythian-Thracian Onomasticon (a list of proper names). For each gloss of it, he has presented the suggested by others linguists Indo-Iranian, Thracian, and sometimes other possible matches . According to Petrov, "it is far from being possible to tell confidently in all cases, that the given name is just Thracian, and not Iranian". Sometimes it is impossible to share Scythian and Thracian glosses, as the linguistic material of both languages is adjacent, having qualitatively related source base, and connected chronologically . In order to confirm or deny the assumptions about the language of the Scythians one can try to find new explication for all, without exception, proper names of Petrov’s onomasticon by means of Ossetic, Chuvash and Kurdish languages. During realization of this purpose it has been revealed that the majority of the names of the onomasticon correspond much better to words of modern Chuvash and Kurdish languages than considered earlier Old Indian, Avestian, Persian and even Ossetic words. Certainly, concerning the each of particular cases, last word belongs to experts, but numerous Scythian-Chuvash correspondences give the reason to say that the identification of the Scythians with Proto-Bulgars has proved to be true. Besides, rather a big group of Scythian-Kurdish parallels out of the onomasticon, as well before presented Kurdish-Chuvash parallels too, can be the evidence that Proto-Kurds adjoined Proto-Bulgars still long time after the most part of Kimmerians has departed to the Transcaucasia. In the presented below Petrov’s onomasticon, unsystematic and questionable explications by means of Indian, Avestian, Old-Persian languages are omitted in the case if phonetic nearer words of Chuvash, Kurdish or other modern Iranian languages suits better to particular name. As the phonetics of ancient Bulgarish language differed from Greek language essentially, the spelling of the phonemes of Bulgarish names by means of the Greek writing could differ a little in different sources, but as a whole the reflexivity of consonants has enough precise laws. The basic from them are such: Gr. β, π, φ correspond to Cuv. p; Gr. γκ do to Chuv. k; Gr. δ, θ, τ do to Chuv. t; Gr. ζ do to Chuv.ç, sometimes š; Gr. ξ do to Chuv. š. The reflexivity of vowels has unless the certain law in division of the vor and back vowels, e.g. frequently Greek α corresponds Chuvash u or ă. The phonetics of Greek, Kimmerian, Ossetic languages are more similar among themselves, therefore searching of Kurdish and Ossetic correspondences does not cause difficulties.


Αβαβοσ (ababos) – Kurd. ebaboz “a thief” is suitable for anthroponimic good.

Αβηδαμω (abe:damo:) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. ǎv “to rub, grind” and etem “man” (“miller”).

Αβλωνακοσ (ablo:nakos) – Kurd. eble ”a fool” and nekes “miserable”. A good junction for anthroponimics.

Αβρανοσ (abranos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. upran ”to look after”.

Αβροζεοσ (abrodzeos) – Chuv. upran ”to look after” and çava “cemetery”, Afg ābru “honor, dignity”.

Αβρισκον (abriskon) – Com. Ir. av “water”, rişk “a nit”; Chuv. upran ”to look after” and ěšen “be tired”.

Αγαροσ (agaros), Scythian king – "an awake" (Os iğal , Av gar)? The name for grey- or deer-hound suits better (Chuv akar, Hung, agár, Karach. eger, Chirk hagar "a borzoi, hound"). It is taken attention similarity of these words to Ger Jäger "a hunter", originated from jagen "to hunt, drive", marked in Kluge's dictionary as unclear origin. Obviously, this is derivative from ancient Nostratic root *ag-/aj- "to drive", presented by many words in the Turkic, Finno-Ugric, and Indo-European languages.

Αζιαγοσ (adziagos) – good good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. ača “a child” and akăš “a swan”. Better Hung agyag “loamy”.

Αζοσ (adzos) – Kurd. aciz ”weak” or aza “free”; Chuv. uçă open”.

Αθαφοιω (athafoio:) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. ută “small forest”, ”an island”, “hayfield” and puy “rich”.

Αναιη (anaie:) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. hěne ”to beat, hit” and ie ”bad ghost”.

Ανδανακοσ (andavakos) – this name can be decoded by Chuv. ant "oath", năkă "hard, strong", but can have also Andlo-Saxon (OE. anda "hatred, envy, resentment, anger” and nǽcan "to kill"), or Iranian origin, matches to which are present in Finno-Ugric and Caucasian languages (Os. ändon "steel", Chech. ando "firmness, strength", Udm anda, Komi yemdon "steel").

Ανοπτηνισ (anopte:nis) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. an “width” and ăptă ”ide (a kind of fish)”.

Απφη (apfe) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. appa ”the older sister”.

Αργαιο (argaio) – Afg arġay ”belching”; Chuv. ărkay ”trout”.

Αργιμπατοι (argimpatoi) – Kurd. erqem “number” and feda ”sacrifice”; Chuv. arkan “to break” and păta "a stick”.

Αργοτον (argoton) – see previous;

Αργουναγοσ (argounagos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. arkan “to break” and aka “tillage”.

Αρδαγδακοσ (ardagdakos) – Osset. ardar "leader", Kurd. elder "leader" and dek “slyness”; Turkic languages give many other possibilities of translation, e.g. Chuv. artak "delight" and tăkăs “sour”, urtar "to anger"; com. Turkic ortaq (Chuv vărtăõ) "a friend" and dyqyz (Chuv tăkăs "close, tight"), or artyq „great” è dağ "mountain".

Αρδαρακοσ (ardarakos) – Osset. ardar "a leader", Kurd. elder “leader”, ardû "wood" and req "dry". Arm ardaraxos "truthful".

Αρσακομασ (arsakomas) – Chuv ărăs "happiness", xăm "a fruit, foetus".

Αρτινοιη (artinoie:) – Lit artinti „to approach”.

Αρτιπουσ (artipous) – Lit arti “near”.

Ασανοσ (asanos) – com. Ir. oson “light” or osan “iron”; Chuv. ăsan “go away”.

Ασαροσ (asaros) – Osset. a and sär “headless”, Kurd. hesar “fence”.

Ασπαμιθαρεοσ (aspamithareos) – com. Ir. asp(a) “horse”, and Kurd. metha “praise” and rewe “herd”.

Αυλουζελμισ (auloudzelmis) – Kurd. hewil “help”or ewlî “holy” and zelam “man”.

Αυλου-υπορισ (aulou-poris) – Kurd. ewlî “holy”, por “hair”.

Αυχαταιι, Scythian race, descendants of Lipoxais – good matches are not found. The name Avhat is usual among Bashkyrs and Volga Tatars but its origin is dark.

- Βαζοσ (badzos) – com. Ir. bazu “an arm”, “a wing”; Chuv. puç “a head”, vyçǎ “hunger”.

Βαλοσ (balos) – Kurd. bala “top”; Chuv. vulă “trunk, stem”; OE wala, walu „stick”.

Βαλωδισ (balo:dis) – the name is usually compared with Osset. bälon “a pigeon”, but Let. baluodis “a pigeon” suits better phonetic.

Βαρδανου (bardanou) – Chuv wărttăn “secret” (adj).

Βαστα (basta) – Osset., Pers., Afg. etc. bast(a) “to tie, bind”, OE bǽst “bast”.

Βενζει (bendzei) – Osset. bindzä “bee”, Kurd. banz “jump”.

Βεσσα (bessa) – Kurd. beş „part, share“, or bes „sufficent“, or bəş “tribute”, or bêşe “small wood, forest”; Chuv. pěçě „thigh“ věç “finish”, OE wiss “sure, trustly”.

Βιτου (bitou) – Kurd. beta „to vanish“; Chuv. pětev ”body”, “amulet”.

Βιστησ (biste:s) – Kurd. bistî “stalk” or bista “trusty” or bista “lover”.

Βολασ (bolas) – Kurd., Pers. etc bolo “top”; Chuv. pulu “gingerbread”.

Βουζασ (boudzas) – Kurd. boz “grey”, bûz “ice”; Chuv. puç “head”.

Βουλαστησ (boulaste:s) – Chuv. pyl “honey”, asta “master” ("bee-master”).

βουτυρον (butter) – Chuv vat (or *pat), „to beat” yră „firs milk”.

Βραδ’ακον (brad’akon) – Lit bradyty, Let bradît “to wade”.

Ολβια Βρισαισ (Olbia Brisais) – Thrac. βριζα “rye”.

Γ’αγανοσ (gaganos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. kăkan “a handle’;

Γερβησ (gerbe:s) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. kěr "autumn" and pas “hoarfrost, rime”.

Γερμανοσ (germanos) – com. Ir. garm/germ “warm”;

Γετομουσον (getomouson) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. kĕtĕ, kata “wood, bush”, the current Turkic bus- (mus-?) should suit to the second part of the name.

Γηροσ (ge:ros) – Kurd. gewr “grey”;

Γοκων (goko:n) – see Γ’αγανοσ;

Γολα (gola) – Kurd. gol “dog”, gole “senior herdsman”, Osset. gal “ox, bull”;

Δ’αδα (dada) – com. Ir. dada “father”;

Δαδαγοσ (dadagos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tutăx “rusty“; other Turkic have similar words having mean “bustard” (Tat düdäk, Kaz duadaq etc).

Δαλατοσ (dalatos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tulă “wheet” and tasa “clean”;

Δαμασ (damas)- good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tum “clothes”, tăm 1. “clay” , 2. “frost”;

Δανδαξαρθον (dandaksarthon) – com. Ir. dandon “tooth and Kurd. şert ”agreement”; Chuv. šărt “oath”. The root ξαρθ is fixed in epigraphics in the North Pontic. Kurd. şert ”agreement” and Chuv. šărt “oath” coincide to it good phonetic. It is interesting that an oath for tooth, words “I give the tooth” and a suitable gesture are present in criminal and even in children world at present. However the Kurdish word can be borrowed from Arabic. Compare Διδυμοξαρθοσ.

Δαον (daov) – Chuv. tăvan „kinsman”.

Δαππασισ (dappasis) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tup “to find” and pusă “a spring”;

Δεινοστρατο (deinostrato) – doubtless the name has Latin origin (deus „deity”, dei „deities”, noster „our”)

Δηλοπτιχον (daloptikhon)- good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tălăp “stature” and tixa “a foal”;

Διαγορασ (diagoras) – Kurd. dia “blessing” and gor “grave, tomb”;

Διδυμοξαρθοσ (didumoksarthos) – Kurd. didan “a tooth” (com. Ir. dandon) and şert ”condition”; Chuv. tytăm “control, management” and šărt “oath”. Although such word is also in Arabic (šart „condition”) Compare Δανδαξαρθον.

Διζα (didza) – Kurd. diz “a thief”;

Διζα-ζελμισ (didza-dzelmis) – Kurd. diz “a thief” and zelam "a man";

Διζαρον (didzaron) – Kurd. diz “a thief” and rûvi “fox”;

Δινδον (dindon) – Ir. din (Kurd. dîn) “faith”; better Chuv. těn “faith” and tav “gratitude”;

Δουπτουνον (douptounou) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tupa “oath”and tun “to refuse”(“oath-breaker”).

Δοκιων (dokio:n) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tăk “to pour” and yun “blood” (“a killer”);

Δομηω (dome:o:) – Kurd. dûmayî “remains”;

Δοριζον (doridzon) – Chuv. tur( “god” and çyn “a man”.

Δοσυμοξαρτοσ (dosumoksartos)- good Iranian matches are not found for the first partial word; Chuv. tus “friend” and šart “oath” (“a chum”).

Δουλασ (doulas) – Kurd. dol “ravine”;.

Δροβολουσ (drobolous) – no any good matches;

Δυνατων (dunato:n) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tyna “heifer” and tăn “mind, reason”;

Δυρπαναισ (durbanais) – Chuv. tărpa “flue, pipe” and nay “pan-pipe”;.

Δωτουσ (do:tous) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tuta “lip”, tută “replete, sated”, tătăš “frequent”;

Εισγουδιον (eisgoudion) – Kurd. e’yş “joy, spree, fun” and qude “proud”; Chuv. ěç “work” and kut “ass”; OE īs “ice”, gōd “good”.

Εργινο (ergino) – Kurd. erk “job, matter” and îna “faith”; Chuv. er “to tie”and küme “truck”;

Ζαζουσ (dzadzous) – Kurd. zaza(n) – some Kurdish tribe;

Ζαλζοv (dzaldzon) – Chuv. çul “a way”, çyn “a man”;.

Ζειλασ (dzeilas) – Kurd. zeyle (zehle) “pester”.

Ζιννα (zinna) – Kurd. zîn “saddle” and nav “girdle”; Chuv. çěn ‘to win”;

Ζουλεμησ (dzoulemes) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. çülevěç “a lynx”. Almost full phonetic coincidence and specific sense of word;

Ζουρη (dzoure:) – com. Ir. zor/zur “force”; Chuv. çyră “light-brown”.

Ζουροζισ (dzourodzis) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. çăraççi “key, lock”;

Ζωπυρα (dzo:pura), Ζωπυριων (dzo:purion) – Kurd. zopir “great”; Chuv. çupărla “to embrace”; Gr. ζοφυριοσ „western”.

Ζωρθτινησ (dzo:rthtane:s) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. çărttan “pike (fish)”. Very good coincidence. Even double tt was reflected in Greek transcription;

Ζωρσανοσ (dzo:rsanos) – Ir zor/zur “strength, force”; Chuv. çur 1. “spring-time”, 2. “half” . 3. “to tear”, sǎn “face”, sǎnǎ “spear”, sun “to want”.

Išpakai, Scythian king or war-lord in Assyrian sources – this name is a serious argument for Iranian origin of Scythians however it could not stem out of Ir aspa „a horse”, but out of Ir spaka „a dog”. One can find in Turkic languages some variants of explanation of the word but it really could have Iranian origin. Maybe Cimmerians named their enemy by such scornful name “a dog”.

Καρδιουσ (kardious) – different explanations are possible – Kurd. kerdî “furrow”; Chuv. kǎrt ”few”, xurt “worm”; Gr καρδια “heart”.

Καρζεισ (kardzeis) – Os karz “sharp, hart”; Afg karz “debt”; Chuv. xurçă “steel”.

Καρζοαζοσ (kardzoadzos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. xurçă “steel” and uçă “key”;

Καρσα (karsa) – Kurd. kerş “wood chips, splinters”; Chuv. xyrçă “spine”;

Κατιαροι (katiaroi), Scythian race, descendants of Arpoxais – Chuv xǎta “a matchmaker”, ar “a man”.

Λαζενοσ (landzenos) – Chuv. laččan “a falcon”;

Λογχατησ (longchate:s), Lucian – Longhates was the friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) and helped him to kidnap a bride – the name can be explained as "long-haired" (OE long "long", hæd “hair”).

Λυνγιον (lungion) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. lănk(a) “full” and yun (jun) "blood" or yün (jün) “force, energy”;

Μα (ma) – Kurd. max “source”; Chuv. may ”side” or măy “neck”;

Μαδακον (madakon) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. mătăk “short”;

Μαδιυσ (madius), Scythian ruler, Partatua's son, assumed control over the Medes until 625 – the name hasn’t sure explanation. Maybe Turkm, Gag badaš “a friend”?

Μαζισ, Μαζασ (madzis, madzas) – Kurd. maze “axis” or mazî “splinter”; better Lit mažas, Let mazs “small”;

Μαησ (mae:s) – perhaps as Ma.

Μαιακοv (maiakon) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. măyăx “moustaches”;

Μαιτωνιον (maito:nion) – com ir. maidan “place, stand’.

Μακεντησ (makente:s), according Lucian, the friend of a Scythian Arsacomas – OE maca "a friend, companion" included, according to Holthausen in such Anglo-Saxon proper nouns as Meaca, Mackenthorp, Mackensen (A. HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974: 209, 216), and OE. ent "a giant".

Μανισ (manis) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. mănaç “proud” or mănă “great”;

Μησακον (me:sakon) – Kurd. maşaq “beloved”;

Μοκαπορεοσ (mokaporeos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. măka ”blunt” and pura “to hew”;

Μοκκον (mokkon) – Chuv. măkăn' ”poppy”;

Μοστιον (mostion) – com. Ir. mast “drunk” or “bitter”;

Μουκουαγοσ (moukouagos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. măka ”blunt” and aka “ancient plough”;

Μουκουνακυρον (moukouvakurou) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. măka ”blunt” and văkăr “bull, ox”;

Μουρδαγοσ (mourdagos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. mărtăk “brittle”;

Οκτομασαδησ (oktomasade:s), a Scythian king, the son of Ariapeites (see Αριαπειθεσ), Scyl' brother (see. Σκυλησ ) – the names of the father and brother are deciphered by Old English, so this name can be associated with OE œhta «pursuer», adesa «an ax».

Ολγασυσ (olgasus) – Kurd. olk 1. “province” 2. army”; Chuv alka “ear-ring”.

Ουαραζακον (ovaradzakon) – “a beaten tramp” (Afg avāra, Tal awərə, Kurd. êperî etc “a tramp, vagabond”, com. Ir čak- “to beat”).

Ουαργα-δακοσ (ovarga-dakos) – Abayev’s explanation as “wulf-eater” (Os wärg „a wulf”, and Aw ad- „to eat”), better Kurd warge „place” and deq „flat”.

Ουαρζβαλοσ (ovardzbalos) – Chuv. vărç “to war” and pulaš “to help”;

Ουαρζβαλακοσ (ovardzbalakos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. vărç “to war” and pylak ”pleasure”; see also Παλακοσ

Ουαστοβαλοσ (ouastobalos) – Tal. ovašto „to hang” and bol „arm, wing”.

Ορσιομιχοσ “(orsiomixos) – Osset ūrs “white” è mīğ “cloud”.

Παιρισαδησ (pairisade:s) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. payăr ”private” and sut “to sell”;

Παλακοσ (palakou), Scythian king in the Crimea, the son of Sciluros, the 1st cen. BC – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. pulă (earlier pulak) “a fish” or pulăx “fecundity”; see also Ουαρζβαλακοσ.

Πανηιοσ (pane:ios) – Kurd. pene ”secret”;

Πανιασ (panias) – see previous;

Παραλαται (paralatai or paradatai?), Scythian race, descendants of Kolaxais – Av paraδāta “to constitute, originate”. This name can be translated as "wood cutters". Chuv pura "to cut, hack" suits to Germ Latte, OE lætt "board, plank", Baluchi lat't' "wood, stick". The Chivash language might have such word as Chuv lată "a device for the bending of shaft-bows".

Παρτατυα (partatua), a Scythian ruler which fought in Assyria, 673 BC) – perfectly suit Chuv pyrtă ”an axe”, tuya “a stick”.

Πασαρον (pasaron) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. păsara ”polecat”;

Πατασιον (patasion)- Cuv putaš “loat, bobber”, Let pāts “bay, light-brown”.

Πατειν (pateinΠατεισ – Av paiti “lord”, Ir pata/pada “foot”, Chuv păta “nail”, Afg pāta “a left, backward”, Lit pati “wife, woman”, Let patiess “true”.

Πατειροσ (pateiros) – Ir pata/pada “foot”, Kurd êrîş „footstep”.

Πατιασ (patias) – see Πατειν.

Πιστov (piston) – com. Ir. piston „bosom”.

Πυρρε (purre)- – Kurd. pûr “pheasant”;

Ρησκουπορισ (re:skouporis) – com. Ir. rişk “louse”, “nit” and Kurd. por “hair”;

Ροιμηταλκασ (roume:talkas) – Kurd. rûmet “cheek” and elk “glutton”;

Σαβαδα (sabada) – Pers. sabad, Afg. savada, Yag., Yazg. sabat, Kurd. sepet “basket"; Chuv. săpat “face”;

Σαβωδακοσ (sabo:dakos) – perhaps as previous;

Σαββιον (sabbion) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. săpă “a daughter of master” and puyan “rich man”;

Σαδαλοv (sadalon) – Maybe the word is Thrakish.

Σαλα (sala) – com. Ir. sal/sol “year”; Chuv. sulu “bad magic action”;

Σαμβατιων (sambatio:n) – no good matches. Maybe, gr. *σαμβατιων ;

Σαμβιων (shambio:n) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. šămpay ”fool” and yun “blood”;

Σαρατου (saratou) – Osset. särd “summer”; Chuv. sără “grey” or sară “yellow and tu “mountain”;

Σασαν (sasan) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. susăn “to get tired”;

Σατρα-βατησ (satra-bate:s) – Afg sutra “clean” è bata “gander”. The word meaning “a gander” is present in other names (see Ραθαγωσοσ). Obviously, it is not accidentally as, for example, in Celtic mythology the gander is a symbol of warlike and not seldom convoys god of war.(Botheroyd Sylvia und Paul F. 1999. Lexikon der keltischen Mythologie. München.)

Σεαυαγοv (seavagon) – Kurd. seav “otter”, se “a dog”, waq “sense, feeling”.

Σειταλκυσ (seitalkus) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sět “milk” and alxas “loud, naughty child”; better Thracian name Sitalces;

Σερεισ (series) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sěre 1. “very” 2. “vainly”;

Σευθον (seuthon) – Kurd. sewt “loud”or sewda “mind, reson”;

Σιρακοι (sirakoi) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sěrěx “feeble”;

Σιρανον (siranon) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sěren “ancient folk holyday”;

Σιραχον (sirakhon) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sěrěx “feeble”;

Σισα (sisa) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sis “to feel”;

Σισουλι (sisuli)- good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. sisü “feel”;

Σκαρτανοσ (skartanos) – Osset. skäryn “to drive”; better Chuv. çărttan “pike (fish)”; see also Ζωρθτινησ.

Σκιλουροσ (skiluros), Σχιλουροσ, the Scythian king, the 2nd cen BC – the name can be explained by means of different languages (Kurd. şilor “plum”);

Σκοζοσ (skodzos) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. šyçǎ “swell”;

Σκυλησ, the son of Ariapeites (see Αριαπειθεσ) killed by the brother Octomasades (see Οκτομασαδησ) – OE scola «debtor» from sculan «to owe».

Σμορδοσ (smordos) – good matches excepting Lit smardas “stink” are not found.

Σπαργαπειθησ (spargapeithes), the name of two men, one of them was the Agathyrsian king, another was the king of the Scythians – the name can be translated as "a hewing sparks" by means OE spearca “a spark" and restored word *pathan “to beat". Restoring followed such way. Old English had the word pađ “a path” bur it is known that the words path, road are often attributed as "beaten". Farther, OE pýtan had one meaning "to squeeze, push". In addition, Herodotus translated Oyor-pata as "a killing men". Obviously, the Turkic word pata- “to beat” was borrowed by Old English and lost later. It should not confuse the names of Agathyrsian and Scythians kings had German origins. The fact of the transition royal names from one nation to another is known (M.I. Artamonov, 1974, 131).

Σπαρτοκοσ (spartokos), names of some kings of the Bosporan Kingdom – OE. sparian „to spare, protect”, tācen "sign", teag 1. "band", 2. "communal land".

Στυρακοσ (sturakos) – Kurd. stûr, Osset. styr, sutur and other Iranian “great, strong, thick”;

Στυρανοσ (sturanos) – see previous;

Ταρσουσ (tarsous) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. tărša “butt”, tyrsa “feather-grass”.

Ταξακισ (taksakis), Scythian military leader – to Os täx-sag "a fast deer" or to Chuv tu "a mountain" and xysak "a rock".

Τοκων (tooko:n) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. takăn “to stumble”.

Τρασπιεσ (traepeis), Scythian race, descendants of Arpoxais – matches are not found.

Χαλαισ (xalais) – good Iranian matches are not found; Chuv. xulă ”switch” or xalay ”bad”.

Chorsari (accordind to Plinius the Scythian name for Persians) – no doubt, this is a Turkic word xarsar/xarsyz "a robber, thief" (Chuv xarsăr "daring, brave, courageous").





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