The study and systematization of a variety of substrate onomastics, recorded in historical documents and monuments, is practically impossible without reliable knowledge about the peoples who inhabited this or that area at different times. This is especially important when historical information is scarce and contradictory. We have this case for the Scythian-Sarmatian time on a vast area including the entire territory of Ukraine and Moldova, the southern part of European Russia, and in part, Hungary and Romania. This space corresponds to the broad understanding of Great Scythia, or Scytho-Sarmatia, which can be found among ancient historians. The rich history of this country and its ethnic composition are of great interest to scientists and naturally, they have assumptions that are sought for scientific confirmation. Based on epigraphic data collected by V.V. Latyshev, Ladislav Zgusta, T.N. Knipovich, Max Vasmer, and others, V.I. Abaev, V.P. Petrov, Janos Harmatta, Augusti Alemani compiled their own lists of Scythian-Sarmatian names and realities and gave them their own transcripts or repeated and supplemented those made by their predecessors. These lists appear in various forms in the works of subsequent researchers, and now it is not always possible to establish the original source. Comparison of the available material with the list of Iranian names by F. Justi (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895) or with the corpus of names from Olbia (KNIPOVICH T.N., LEVI E.I. 1968) shows that in the prejudice of the exclusively Iranian linguistic affiliation of the Scythians and Sarmatians, the researchers aimed to restore the "Scythian-Sarmatian" language on the basis of the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea region. In accordance with this, they chose names that could be deciphered exclusively in Iranian languages. Particularly difficult cases were simply ignored. Due to such considerations, it became necessary to supplement the existing lists with new glosses, which can be taken from the mentioned work of Justi. Thus, a base was collected for compiling a representative sample from the available epigraphy data of Great Scythia and historical documents of the Sarmatian times.
It has been repeatedly pointed out by various authors that the conclusion that the entire population of the Northern Black Sea region is Iranian-speaking is hasty. An objectively compiled representative sample of names and realities from all the revealed epigraphy and historical materials will help to establish the ethnic composition of the region under study. After being involved in deciphering, in addition to Iranian, and other Indo-European languages, as well as for Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Caucasian, it turned out that all the available lexical material in the Northern Black Sea region should be divided into two onomasticons – Scythian and Sarmatian, the boundary between which cannot be established. In addition, the presence of the Anglo-Saxons in the Northern Black Sea region both in the Scythian and Sarmatian times revealed in the course of research gave grounds for compiling a separateAlan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon, a significant part of which was involved in the compilation of the Sarmatian Onomasticon.
Marble slab with scenes of sacrifice and a meal from Olbia
The first half of the 2nd century BC. Size: height 331-337, width 495 mm.
(Ibid, Table XXXVII)
Translation of the text on the slab: Being bread inspectors Theocles, son of Tharsiadam, Demetrius, son of Fokrit, Athenius, son of Konon, Nevtim, son of Heroksen, with Secretary Athenodor, son of Demagoras, this image was dedicated to the Hero of the Hearing.
Below is a representative selection of transcribed glosses in different languages that are related to the Sarmatian time. The sample was used to calculate the number of glosses that can be deciphered primarily using one language, which can help establish the then ethnic composition of Great Scythia. Due to the ambiguity of transcripts, significant changes and additions are constantly made to the selection, so when using it, you should take the most recent version. The deciphering was helped by the family relations of the carriers of individual names. When one of them is included in the list, the names of his relatives should not be ignored. The probability of true interpretation increases if the names of fathers and children are deciphered using the same language. If this fails, the artificiality of some deciphering costas remains doubtful, although popular names may circulate throughout Great Scythia, regardless of origin.
Before making a quantitative assessment of the ratio of the languages with which the names were deciphered, it should be noted that this ratio in no way reflects the mosaic of the ethnic diversity of Great Scythia. The database used may contain names that have nothing to do with the Sarmatians. First of all, this applies to the Greek colonists. Except for them, practically no people left written evidence of their presence in this region. Only single monuments on hard media contain inscriptions in local languages in Greek letters. Numerous archaeological sites with texts in Greek were left by the inhabitants of the Black Sea-Azov coast. They contain information about the socio-economic relations and cultural life of Greek cities and the names of the most active part of their population. Only occasionally can one find in them non-Greek names of aborigines from among the tribal elite or the trade and economic class who joined the life of the colonies. As a result, the ratios obtained can to some extent speak only about the ethnic composition of the ruling elite, since some tribes had a leading place in tribal unions. Such names could be considered prestigious, and more fashionable than others. To this, we can add that visiting rich merchants more often than the local population could be buried with expensive tombstones in the form of stone slabs and with names carved on them. This also distorted the overall picture of the ethnic composition of the population of the Northern Black Sea region. The ethnic diversity of the population here intensified even more after the arrival of the Goths and the subsequent invasion of the Huns, which led to the Great Migration of Peoples. We will keep all this in mind when considering the data of the analysis.
For a representative sample of the Sarmatian onomasticon, 315 glosses were selected. The analysis carried out showed that the decoding of the names contained in it is possible with the involvement of a much larger number of languages than was the case when working with the Scythian onomasticon. During the analysis, it turned out that many of the glosses of the list can be deciphered using several languages or are well deciphered in Greek or Latin. Some names referred to the Alanian guides in Gaul and had nothing to do with the Sarmatians. All of them were not included in the representative sample, in which there were glosses deciphered more or less reliably only with the help of one language or several Iranian ones in the amount of 249 units. The calculation showed that the number of Iranian and Anglo-Saxon glosses is more or less the same and together they make up about half of the sample. The share of Turkic glosses, most of which are Bulgarish, is 20%, and the share of Adyghean glosses interpreted in the Kabardian language is 13%. The same number of glosses is certified for Hungarian and Chechen glosses and their common share is also 13%. A little less, namely 13 glosses were interpreted in the Baltic languages, two in Armenian and one in the languages of the Mordovian group. This result is convincing evidence of the multinational nature of Greater Scythia in Sarmatian times, and the Iranians did not prevail in it, which is also confirmed by toponymy, although the correlation between toponymy and anthroponymy is unclear.
Ossetian names are in dark green, Kurdish in blue.
At left: Plate A from Tanais
Material: marble, approx. 175-211 AD. Size: height 1920, width 730 mm. It is stored in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
(Photo from Wikipedia)
1. Αβδαρακος (abdarakos), the father of Akexandros and Orshiomichos, Tanais – F. Justi connected the name with the Pers. ābdār "well-fed, rich" (JUSTI FERDINAND, 1895: 1). The combination of Kurds word has a similar meaning: ava "comfortable", dara "rich". dara "rich".
2. Αγροι (aγroi) according to Strabo, some tribe near Lake Maeotis – Harmatta explains it as "the first" according Old. Ir. agra (HARMATTA J. 1970).
3. Αμαιακος (amaiakos), Tanais – "builder" (Oc. amajun „to build”, amajæg „builder”).
4. Anbazuk (a ruler on the Northern Caucasus, 1-2 cen. AD) – Os bazuk „arm, shoulder”.
5. Αργοδας (arγodas), Panticapaeum, Αργωδα (argo:da), a city in Chersonesos Taurica – Os. arğaun ( arğud participle) „to sanctify”.
6. Αρδαβδα (ardabda) or Αβδαρδα (abdarba), the Alanian or Taurian name of the town of Theodosia, translated by an unknown Greek author as "the city of seven gods" – Os. ard “oath” (originally a deity sworn by), avd “seven”.
7. Αρδοναγαρος (ardonaγaros), Tanais, the father of Ithiochakos – Kurd. ard, "land", noqar "quarrel".
8. Αριι (arii), a Sarmatian tribe – the tribe name originates from the self-designation of the Indo-Iranian tribes. F. Justi cites a number of personal names with the basis of αρια. The word is Iranian.
9. Αφθειμακος (aphtheimakos), Tanais – Os. ævdæimag „seventh”.
10. Βαιορασπος (baioraspos), Tanais – Kurd. beyar “hill, mountain pasture” and hespajo “horse driver, herder” related semantically. Both words have no correspondence in other Iranian languages.
11. Βαιορμαιος (baiornaios), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Papias – Kurd. beyar “hill, mountain pasture”, meywe „fruit”.
12. Βαναδασπος (banadaspos), the king of the Sarmatian tribe of Yazygs – accordind to M. Vasmer, something like a “victorious horse” vanat-aspa (Old Ir. van "to win" and asp „horse”) (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 307).
13. Βαστακας (bastakas), Tanais – Os. bæstag „local, countryman”.
14. Βιστης (biste:s), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Kurd. bistî „stem” or bista „trusting” or bista „mistress”.
15. Βορασπος (boraspo:s), the archon in Tanais, Latyshev – common Ir. bor/bur „brown, yellow” and. aspa „horse”.
16. Δανδαριοι (dandarioi), the name of the people in the lower part of the Kuban River and in Meotia, Strabo – the lower part of the Kuban lies between the Azov and Black Seas, the Kurd. dan "inside" and derya/darya „sea” are well suited to explain the name of the people, "surrounded by the sea".
17. Ζαντικος (dzantikos), the Prince of The Iazyges – Kurd. zan "mage", tîk "high", "direct".
18. Ζαρινα (dzarina), the queen of the Saka, Ctesias – common Iranian zarin „gold”.
19. Ζουρης (dzoures), Tyras – Kurd. zor- „strength”.
20. Ιασανδανακος (iasandanakos), the son of Yavak (see. Ιαυακος), Tanais – Kurd. yasan "sad", dên “look” —ek – an article.
21. Ιαυακος (iauakos), the father of Yasandak (see. Ιασανδανακος ), Tanais – Kurd. yavaș „calm, quiet”.
22. Λειμανος (leimanos), 1. the son of Pgidas (see Πιδασ), the father of aspandan, Tanais. 2. the son of Phidas, the grandson of Phidas? Pantexapeum Latyshev – Os. limæn „friend”.
23. Μαδα (mada), female name, Vasmer – Os. madæ „mother” (similar words are present in other Iranian languages).
24. Μαιτωνιον (maito:nion), according to Ptolemy, a town on the banks of the Dniester (Tiras) – obviously the name of the town originate from the widespread Ir.majdan „place, area”.
25. Μαμμαρος (mammaros), Panticapaeum, Vasmer – Kurd. mam "relative", mar "marriage".
26. Μουγισαγος (mouγisaγos), the son of Asan (see Ασανος), Olbia, Latyshev – Os. mugǽ "semen" and sag "deer".
27. Ναβαζος (nabadzos), 1. the son of Numenios, the strategos in Olbia; 2. the son of Cimbros, Tanais, Latyshev – Kurd. nab "clean, pure" and aza "bold", Kurdish female name Nabat existed (JUSTI FERDINAND, 1895: 218).
28. Ναμγηνος (namγe:nos), the son of Neikodrom, the strategos in Olbia, Latyshev – “eminent” (Os. nomgin from nom „name”).
29. Ναρακον στομα (Narakon stoma), according to ancient historians, one of the branches of the Danube Delta, is well-suited to the narrow outfall interpretation when combined Os. naræg „narrow” and Gr. στομα "mouth, throat".
30. Ξησσαγαρος (kse:ssagaros), the father of the strategos Demetrios, Olbia – Kurd. çes „taste", sāγar „bowl, goblet”.
31. Ολθακος (olthakos), according to Plutarch, the ruler of the Dandarian tribe (see Δανδαριοι) – Kurd. ol "faith, religion" and çak "kind, merciful".
32. Ουαρα (ouara) Ουαροσ, Tanais – no doubt this is an Iranian word meaning “tramp” (Afg. avāra, Tal. awərə, Kurd. êpero a.o.).
33. Παρσπανακος (parspanakos), Olbia? – Os. fars „side”, fæjnæg „board”.
34. Πηρακος (pe:rakos), Olbia? – Os. piræg “wool carder”.
35. Πιδας (pidas) 1. Φιδασ, the father of Leman (see Λειμανοσ), Tanais. 2. Πιδασ, the grandson of Fidas, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Os. fyd, fidæ „father”.
36. Ραδαμασις (radamasis), Ραδαμειστοσ (radameistos), Ραδαμσαδισ (radamsadis), Ραδαμψσων (radampso:n) a.o. – Old Iranian *fratama „first” is proposed to explain these and similar names. (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895, 257). However, referring it to any modern Iranian language is not possible.
37. Rasparaganus, the king of Roxolania and Sarmatia, according to the inscription of the times of the emperor Hadrian – Av. frasperegha "offspring" (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895, 259) but a match to it in any modern Iranian language is not found.
38. Ρωξολανοι (ro:ksonaloi), a Sarmatian tribe, according to Strabo and Ptolemy – “white Alans” (Os. ruxs „light”).
39. Σακδεοσ (sakdeos), Tanais – "demon deer"(Old Os. sag-dew).
40. Σανεια (saneia), female name, Panticapaeum – Kurd. senayî "light, slight".
41. Σαρακος (sarakos), Tanais – Kurd. serek "leader, chief", similar words can or could exist in many Iranian languages from the common Iranian sar „head”.
42. Σατρακης (satrake:s), the prince of the Scythians living north of Sogdiana according to Arrian – nothing better than Afg. sutra „clean” and kas “face, person” not found.
43. Σαυανων (sauano:n), the son of Khofrasm (see Χοφρασμοσ), Tanais – Kurd. sêvan „light, bright, blond”.
44. Σαυδαραται (saudaratai), a Sarmatian tribe – according to Abaev, “dressed in black” (Os. saw-dar-a-tæ), which corresponds to the name of the Scythian tribe Melanchlaeni, which has the same meaning.
45. Σιαγους (siagous), Gorgippia – Ir. *sijo „back” (Kurd. sîyah, Afg. sijo a.o.), but maybe also Kurd. se „dog” and agos „tramp”.
46. Σιαουος (siaouos), Olbia, Knipovich – Ir. *sijo „black”, common Iranian ab/av/ov „water”.
47. Σιαυακος (siauakos), Tanais – Kurd. sîyah „black” and waq „feeling”.
48. Σοζαμον (sodzamon), the son of Sturan, Tanais – Kurd. soz "word", eman "compassion, forgiveness".
48. Σορχακος (sorkhakos), Olbia, Vasmer – common Iranian surx/sorx „red”.
50. Σουγδαια (souγdaia), a town in the Crimea, now Sudak, was founded in 212 AD – Os. suğdæg "sacred".
51. Σπαδαγως (spadaγo:s), king of the Sanig tribe in Abkhazia, Σπαδακησ, Olbia, Latyshev, Σπαδινης, king of the Sarmatian tribe of the Aorsi – Ir. *spāda "army" (Os. æfsad, Kurd. (Sorani) spâ). All names are Iranian, but attribution to a particular language is difficult.
52. Σταυακος (stauakos), Tanais – Os. stawæg "glorifying".
53. Ταρουλου (taroulou), Apollonia Pontica – Kurd. tarî "dark" , law “son”.
54. Φαρζηος (Phardze:os), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi, Φαρζοιος, the Sarmatian king in Crimea, protector of Olbia; Φαρζηοσ, the father of Khorardz, Knipovich – Os. færzew "hospitable".
55. Φιδανυος (phidanuos), Φιδας Tanais, Panticapeum – Os. fidæ "father", fidon "paternal".
56. Φοδακος (phodakos), Tanais, Phanagoria – Os. fudag „naughty, imp”.
57. Φουρτας (phourtas), Tanais – Os. furt „son”.
58. Χοαροφαδιος (khoarophadios), Tanais – Kurd. xaver/xewer “sun”, feda „victim”, fede "benefit".
59. Χοδαινος (khodainos) – “god's faith” (Kurd. xuda „god” and îna „faith”).
60. Χοδεκιος (khodekios), Gorgippia – Os. xodæg "funny".
61. Χουναρος (khounaros), Olbia, Vasmer – Kurd. xov "savage" and nêr "male".
62. Χοφρασμος (khophrasmos), Tanais – Kurd. xof „fear” and resm „appearance”.
63. Χωδαρζος (kho:dardzos), the son of Fardz (see Φαρζοιοσ), the strategos in Olbia – Os. xwæd-arc „"equipped with a spear"”.
64. Χωδονακος (kho:danakos), Tanais – possibly “worthy of a laugh” (Os. xodujnag) and "master" (Kurd. xudan + reinforcing suffix -ak)
1. Ababa, Hababa (the mother of Roman Emperor Maximianus, the Alanian woman) – V.I. Abayev explained the name as "Good weaver" on the basis of the OS. wafun "to weave" and Old Iran. *hu- "good". The last word is absent in the modern Iranian languages, and existed only in compound words of Ancient Iranian. It is noteworthy that Maximianus' father was a Goth Mickey. In this regard, the name can be considered to be of Old English origin – OE. āba, ōweb "fabric".
2. Αλδη (alde:), Alanian princess, a widow of Gorge I, the king of Georgia, the 11th cen – OE. ald “old”. A similar name (nickname) is good for a widow.
3. Αμαγη (amage:), Sarmatian queen – Ossetian has no match, OIran. ama „strong, power”. OE. hām "house, dwelling" and āga „owner”, ā „property, possession” fit perfectly phonetically and for the name of the queen.Obviously the name should be understood as "the mistress of the house".
4. Αρδαβουριος (ardabourios), the name of the three Byzantine commanders – OE. eard "circumstances", "coincidence", "fate", bora "son".
5. Αρθιεμανος (arthiemanos), Berezan' – the letter θ in most cases reflects aspirated t (th), therefore, for the explanation should be taken OE. earđ "plowing" and mann "man", "plowman".
6. Βαγδοσαυοσ (bagdosauos), the son of Sauaios (see Σαυαιωσοσ), Tanais – Iranian words meaning "happiness" (West Iran. *baxta-, East Iran *vayda-) are not appropriate phonetically. The common component of bagdo – in this and the next name – pays attention. It can be decrypted by OE. beag "crown, wreath" and dōn "to do, create, establish, lay". The second part of the names of the father and the son σαυ corresponds to OE. sāwan “to sow”, “to plant”, "to cultivate". With a little imagination, you can build a name using these names.
7. Βαδαγος (badaγos), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Iedzrad (see Ιεζδραδοσ); Βαδακησ,the strategos in Olbia, the son of Radampson (see Ραδαμψων)– the name "sitting" (Os. badæg still used as a proper name) does not correspond to the status of a strategos. The names of their fathers are deciphered using the Old English language, therefore these names must also be of Anglo-Saxon origin (OE beadu “struggle, war”, āc "oak"). Cf. Βιδακησ, Βωρακοσ.
8. Βανας (banas), Panticapaeum – OE. bana "murderer".
9. Βιδακης (bidake:s), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – OE. bid "strength", āc "oak". Cf. Βωρακοσ.
10. Βωρακος (bo:rakos), Gorgippia – OE bora "son", āc "oak". Cf. Βιδακησ
11. Βωρnωn (bo:rno:n), the son of Radampson (see Ραδαμψσων) – OE beorn "warrior, prince".
12. Γαγγαιος (gangaios), the father of Sambion (see Σαμβιων), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. gang "way, trip", ea "water, river".
13. Γοδοσαυος (godosauos), Tanais – OE. god "god", sāwan "sow".
14. Γωσακος (go:sakos), the son of Aspak (see Ασπακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. gōs "goose" and æg "egg".
15. Δαναρασμακος (danarasmakos), the son of Odiard (see. Οδιαρδοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. đān "moist", "wet land", ear "lake", smæcc "taste, smell".
16. Ευβαρνακης (eubarnake:s), the father of Oxardodz (see Οξαρδωζισ), Tanais – OE eow „yew”, barn „child”.
17. Ηλμανος (elmanos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. el „alien”, mann „man”.
18. Θαβεις (thabeis), Panticapaeum, female name – OE đeowe “maid”.
19. Θιαρμακος (thiarmakos), the son of Chrysippus, Tanais, Latyshev –in accordance with the Greek name of the father "Golden Horse", the name of the son should also be Greek, but nothing suitable for interpretation was found in Greek. Offered OE. đeor “ignition” macian "to make".
20. Ιεζδραδος (iedzrrados), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. đræd „thread, wire”, īse(r)n “iron”, which originated from Old Turkic jerz (later jez) „copper”.
21. Λικος (likos), the son of Spargapeithes – by OE līc "body" could be called a man of large stature.
22. Λογχατης (longchate:s), Lucian – Longhates was the friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) and helped him to kidnap a bride Masaia (see Μαζαια) – the name can be explained as "long-haired" (OE long "long", hæd “hair”).
23. Μακαγος (makagos), the son of Theodulos, Olbia? Knipovich, Levi – the name is not Greek, OE. mæcg "man", æg "egg".
24. Μαστειρα (masteira), Alanian, a wife of Bosporan king Leucanor, the mother of Madzaia (see Μαζαια), Lician – OE. māse "titmouse". A slight phonetic non-conformity may be neglected, bearing in mind that the name of the mother is Anglo-Saxon.
25. Ξοβας (ksobas), Pantucapeum, Σκοπασισ, the Scythian king, Herodotus – OE. scop „poet, singer”.
26. Οδιαρδος (odiardos), the father of Danarasmak (see Δαναρασμακος), Tanais – OE. wōd „jealousy, rage” and eard „nature, fate”.
27. Ομρασμακοσ (omrasmakos), the father of Kharakst (see Χαρακστος), Tanais – OE. ampre "sorrel". Similar words in the Germanic languages come from I.-E *am(p)ra „sour” (first of all, plant acid) (Kluge Friedrich. 1989, 26).The second part of the word corresponds well to the OE. smæc "taste".
28. Οξαρδωζις (oksardo:dzis), the son of Eubarnak (see Ευβαρνακησ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. oxa „ox, bull”, -r is an epenthesis, dwæs „foolish”.
29. Παλακος (palakos), the son of Silur (see Σκιλουροσ), the leader of the Roxolani – OE pæl "pillar" āc "oak".
30. Ρευρομαρος (reuromaros),the sob of Sipelag (see Σειπελαγοσ) – OE. reowe "cloak", reoma "leather" -r is a suffix to indicate an actor.
31. Σαδαιος (sadaios), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – OE. sāda “tape, rope”.
32. Sagaris, the name of a slave (Ovid), sinus Saggarius (possibly Berezansky estuary according to Pliny), σαγαρισ (sagaris), battle ax, Scythian weapons – OE. sacu "war" and earh “arrow”.
33. Σαναγως (sanagos), the son of Somak (see Σαυμακωσ), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. sǣ "sea" and naka “barque, ship”.
34. Σανδαρζιος (sandardzios), the father of Khoroath (see Χοροαθος) and Khofarn (see Χοφαρνος) – OE sand "sand", earđ "building".
35. Σαρμαται (sarmatai) – OE sār "sickly, frail, suffering" and mæte "weak, poor, bad," "subordinate, low".
36. Σαυαιωσος (sauaio:sos), the father of Bagdocauos (see Βαγδοσαυοσ) – OE sāwan "sow", "plant", cultivate", īw "yew". According to ancient beliefs, the yew wreath possessed magical properties.
37. Σαυμακος (saumakos), a Scythian king, an inscription in Chersonesos, Latyshev, 2. Σώμακος, the son of Sanag (see Σαναγως), the strategos in Olbia, the father of many strategoi in Olbia, Latyshev – OE. sǣ „sea“, maca “comrade, companion”.
38. Σειπελαγος (seipelagos), the father of Reomar (see Ρευρομαροσ), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – OE. sīpian "leak, drip"", lagu "water, flow".
39. Σερεις (sereis), the son of Fandarz (see Φανδαραζοσ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE sear "dry, infertile".
40. Σιρανος (siranos), the father of (see Σαμβατας), Tanais, Latyshev – OE sear, siere “dry, thin”.
41. Σκιλουρος (skilouros), the father of Palak (see Παλακοσ), the king of the Scythian tribe in Crimea – OE. scelian, scellan "separate, divide", ūr "wealth".
42. Σφαροβαις (spharobais), Panticapeum – „mason, builder” (OE. spær “gypsum, limestone” and býan “build”.
43. Τασιος (tasios), the leader of the Roxolani at the end of the 2nd cent. BC – OE tæsan "wound".
44. Φαζιναμος (phadzinamos), Tanais – OE. fācian “seek, demand, achieve” and nama "name". Perhaps the same as Φαδιναμοσ.
45. Φαλδαρανος (phaldaranos), the son of Apollonium, Tanais, Knipovich – OE feld “field, plain” and earn “eagle” (“steppe eagle”).
46. Φανδαραζος (phandardzos), the father of Sereis (see. Σερεισ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE. fandian “try, experience” and racian "dominate, lead".
47. Φαραδος (pharados), Olbia? – OE fǣr „unexpected danger”, “attack” and ād “fire”. Cf. Faraday.
48. Φηδανακος (phe:danokos), Tanais – OE. fadian „lead” and naca "barque, ship".
49. Φλειμναγος (phleimnagos), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. fliema “fugitive” and nǽgan "approach, attack".
50. Φλιανος (phlianos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. fleon "run, dodge, avoid."
51. Φορηρανος (fore:ranos), the son of Evio, Tanais, Latyshev – OE feorr “distant, remote” or feorh "soul, spirit, personality" and earn "eagle".
52. Φοριαυος (phoriauos), the son of Antisten, Tanais, latyshev – at OE. fōr “trip, way” and eawan “show, open”, the name may mean “conductor”.
53. Φοσακος (phosakos), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. fūs “striving forward” and āc 1. “oak”, 2. “ship of oak”.
54. Χαρακστος (kharakstos), the son of Omrasmak (see. Ομρασμακοσ), Tamais, Latyshev – OE. hār "old", āx "ax", -t is epithesis (cf. Ger. Axt "ax").
55. Χομενος (khome:nos), the son of Athenodor (Tanais) – OE. hām “house” and an, æn „alone, lonely”.
At right: Plate B from Tanais
220 AD. Size: height 1053, width 710 mm. It is stored in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
(Photo from Wikipedia)
The name of Khoroath is highlighted in the picture.
56. Χοροαθος (khoroathos), Tanais, the son of Sandzar (see Σανδαρζιος), Tanais – OE heoru "sword", æđan "to swear".
57. Χοροξαδος (khoroksathos), Tanais – OE. heoru "sword", sceađ "sheath".
58. Χορσομανος (khorsomanos) or Χορσαμαντις, a Massaget, spear-bearer of Belisarius, VI century, Procopius of Kessaria – OE. hors "horse", mann "man".
Common Turkic names are in brown.
1. Αζιαος (adziaos), the father of Skartanos (see Σκαρτανοσ), Albia, Latyshev; Αζιασ (adzas), the father of Papas (see Παπασ), Gorgippia – Chuv. aça "father".
2. Αμαδοκοι (amadokoi), according to Ptolemy some Sarmatian tribe, and on his map there are three more such toponyms – Chuv. mătăk 1. "short" 2. "grumpy, quarrelsome"; -a – a prothetic vowel.
3. Αραβατης (arabate:s), Alanian hireling serving Emperor Issak I Komnenos – Turk arabačy "a driver".
4. Αρδαγδακοσ (ardagdakos) – Chuv. artak “bliss”, “joy”, "well-being" tăkăs "tart", "cramped", "frequent".
5. Ασανος, (asanos), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Chuv. ăsan "black grouse".
6. Αταμαζας (atamadzas), the son of Pap (see Παπασ), Gorgippia, the son of Kars (see. Καρσασ), an inscription in Tanais – Chuv. etem “man” and ǎça 1. “male”, 2. “thunder and lightning”. The name of Pap means thunder.
7. Ατασας (atasas), Tanais – Chuv. ataslan "to knot, mat" (-lan- verbal suffix of noun).
8. Αυασισ (auasis), the spouse of Itia (see Ιτιη) and the father of Sim (see Σιμοσ ) and Bol (see. Βολασ), Panticapaeum – Chuv. ăvăs 1. "wax", 2. "aspen".
9. Babai, the Sarmatian king – Chuv. papay „thunder”.
10. Βολασ (bolas), the son of Auasis (see. Αυασισ) and the brother of Sim (see Σιμοσ) – Chuv. păl "flue, ventpipe".
11. Δουαραγος (douaragos), Berezan island – since there are salt deposits on the island and it has been mined since ancient times, it’s best to explain the name by Chuv. tǎvar „salt”.
12. Ζαρανδοσ (dzarandoς), the father of Mardavos (see Μαρδαυοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. çuran „on foot, dismounted”, tus „friend”.
13. Ηρακας (e:rakas), Panticapaeum, the name of the cief translator of the Alans, the beginning of the III century (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 281) – Chuv. erekh „wine” and ăs “to scoop” (“a butler”).
14. Θιαβωγος (thiabo:gos), the son of Siomakh (see Σιωμαχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. chapak "roach, dace".
15. Ιαφαγος (iaphagos), Olbia, Vasmer – Gag. jafak „horse”.
16. Ιραυαδις (irauadis), Tanais, Knipovich – Chuv. ir „morning”, avăt „sing, warble”.
17. Ιρβις (irbis), Tanais – Turkic. irbiz “lynx, leopard”.
16. Ιργανος (irγanos), Tanais, Knipovich – Chuv. yrkhan „thin, meager”.
19. Itaxes, Alan leader in the 8th century, Agustí Alemany – Chuv. iytă açi "male dog".
20. Ιτιη(itie:), a wife of Avas (see Αυασις) – Chuv. yită “dog”.
21. Καινοξαρθος (kainoksarthos), the son of Argouanag (see Αργουαναγος), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously the "broken oath" (Chuv. kainǎ "ripped apart, dismissed", shărt „oath”).
22. Καραστος (karastos), the son of Sarat, Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. kărăs „poor” and tus "friend".
23. Καρσας (karsas), the father of Atamaz (see Αταμαζασ ), Tanais – Chuv. kărs „harsh, sharp”.
24. Κασακος (kasakos), the son of Kartsey (see Καρζεισ), the strategos in Olbia, Κασαγοσ (kasaγos), the father of Arsewakh and Kasken, Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. 1. kasăk „offcut, cut”. 2.kăsăk „interesting, entertaining”.
25. Κουζαιος (koudzaios), Olbia, ? – Chuv. kuç, Tat. küz and similar „eye”, common Turkic aj „moon”.
26. Μαλδαγος (maldagos), Phanagoria, Latyshev – Chuv. mul „property” and tăkă „prosperous”.
27. Μαρδαυος (mardauos), the son of Zarandos (see Ζαρανδοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. marta "beehive", ăvăs "wax, honeycomb".
28. Ξαρθανος (ksarthanos), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously the same as Σκαρτανοσ – Turkic čortan/šortan „pike, luce” (Chuv. çărttan).
29. Ουταφαρνης (outapharne:s), Ουαταφαρνησ, "deity", inscription on an amulet from the Kuban region – Chuv.vută „male and female water spirits”, parne “gift”. The amulet may have the meaning of protection from the water element.
30. Παιρισαλος (pairisalos), the son of Saurof (see Σαυροφοσ) and the father of Revsinal (see Ρευσιναλοσ), Pantecapeum – Chuv. payǎr "proper", sulǎ "ferry, transportation".
31. Παπας (papas), the son of Azis (see Αζισ), Gorgippia – Chuv. papay "thunder".
32. Πορατα (porata), the Prut River in Scythian, Greek name Πιρητοσ – In Chuvashia there is a river Parat , the left tributary of the Volga whose name can go back to the disappeared in the Chuvash language *parat “ravine” (KORNILOV G.E. 1987: 54).
33. Πουρτακης (pourthake:s), Πουρταιοσ (pourtaios), Olbia, Vasmer – Chuv. pavartla "to scold", -ak – noun suffix.
34. Ρευσιναλος (reusinalos), the son of Pairsal (see Παιρισαλησ), the grandson of Saurof (see Σαυροφ), Pantucapeum, Latyshev – since the name of Pairsal is deciphered in Chuvash, the name of his son must also have a correspondence in the Chuvash language. Chuv. ĕrevĕç "lover of women" and inel "appease" fit wel.
35. Σανων (sano:n), Panticapaeum – Chuv. săn „face”, ăn "good to be born".
36. Σαραζακος (saradzakos), the archon in Olbia, the son of Poseideis? Latyshev – Chuv. sară "yellow", çaka "linden".
37. Sardi, a Scythian tribe according to Pliny – Chuv. sǎrt "hill".
38. Σαρυκη (saruke:), female name, Panticapaeum – Chuv. Saruka, female name from sară "blond", "beautiful".
39. Σαυρωμαται (sauro:matai) – Chuv. savăr "marmot" and măti "child", what generally means "children of marmot"
40. Σευραγος (seuragos), Phanagoria – Chuv. sĕvrĕk "spoiled, weak".
41. Σιμος (simos), the son of Auasis (see Αυασισ) and the brother of Bol (see Βολασ), Panticapeum; Σιμο, Bospor, Struve – Chuv. sim "honey drink".
42. Σιωμαχος (sio:makhos), the father of Chabok (see. Θιαβωγοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. sivĕ "cold", -makh is word-forming suffix.
43. Siraki, a Scythian tribe by Pliny – Chuv. sirek "sensitive".
44. Σκαρτανος (skartanos), the son of Azia (see Αζιαοσ), a priest in Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. shărt "oath", ăn "consciousness, reason".
45. Σουσουλων (sousoulo:n), the father of Abroag (see Αβροαγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. săsăl 1. "brain", 2. "bone marrow", ăn "consciousness, reason."
46. Τουμβαγος, Olbia, Knipovich – Old Turkic tom "cold", baqa "frog".
1. Αβροαγος (abroagos), the son of Susulonos (see Σουσουλον), the strategos in Olbia; Αβραγοσ, the son of Sambut (see Σαμβουτοσ), the father of Kharaxenos (see Χαραξηνοσ), the son of Khuarsadzos (see Χυαρσαζοσ), Latyshev – Kabard. abragъue „great”.
2. Αργουαναγος (arγouanaγos), the son of Karakht, the father of Karakht, Kenozart (see Καινοξαρθοσ) and Nawtim, the princeps in Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. eru "angry, cruel", guenykhъ "sin". It was not possible to decrypt all the names by one language.
3. Αψαχος (apsakhos), Tanais, Knipovich; Αψωγασ (apso:gas), Olvia, Latyshev – may be connected with Os. āfsā „mare” or with Kabard. epsykhyn "to get off the horse" ("infantryman").
4. Bevka, a Sarmatian king – Kabard. bevygъe "wealth, abundance".
5. Βωροψαζος (bo:ropsadzos), the son of Kardzey (see Καρζεισ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. bgъury, the verb prefix "stay close", psydze "flood".
6. Zacatae, a tibe i Asiatic Sarmatia, the territories between the Don and the Volga rivers, Pliny – Kabard. zakъuet "standing side by side".
7. Zuardani, a tibe i Asiatic Sarmatia, Pliny – Kabar. zauerey "warlike", den "agree".
8. Ιαζαδαγος, Ιεζδαγοσ (iadzadagos, iedzdagos), Olbia, Vasmer – Kabard. iIa "painted", zadagъ "mountain steepness".
9. Ιναρμαζος (inarmadzos), the son of Kukodon (see Κουκοδων), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Kabard. in "great", armuzh' "laggard".
10. Ινσαζαγος (insadzagos), the son of Sesadz (see Σθαζεισ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. in "great", sedze "blade of knife".
11. Καδανακος (kadanakos), the son of Nawag (see Ναυαγοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. kIe "finish", denagъ "boundary".
12. Καρζεις (kardzeis), the son of Boropsadz (see Βωροψαζοσ) – Kabard. kIarts "acacia, robinia".
13. Κασκηνος (kaske:nos), the son of Kasag (see Κασακοσ) – Kabard. keskIen "shudder".
14. Καφαναγος (kaphanagos), the father of Mourdag) (see Μουρδαγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. kъafenyge “dance”.
15. Κουκοδων (koukodo:n), the father of Inarmaz (see Ιναρμαζοσ), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Kabard. kъeukIa "killed", udyn "strike".
16. Κουκοναγος (koukonagos), the son of Rekhovnag (see Ρηχουναγοσ), a market administrator in Olbia – Kabard. kъeukIa "killed", negu "face".
17. Μαισης (maise:s), Gorgippia – Kabard. maise “sharp saber, sharp knife”.
18. Μευακοσ (meuakos), the father of Navak (Ναυακοσ), Tanais – Kabard. myve "stone", kъaz "goose".
19. Μουρδαγος (mourdagos), the son of Kafanag (see Καφαναγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. mamyr "silence", degu "deaf".
20. Ναυαγος (navagos), the father of Kadanak (see Καδανακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. ne "yey", vagъue "star" .
21. Νιχεκος (nikhekos), Gorgippia – Os. nix „forehead”, Kabard. nekhъykIe “worst”.
22. Ουαμψαλαγος (ouampsalagos), Olvia, Knipovich – Kabard. auan "mockery", psalъegъu „interlocutor”).
23. Ουαρδανης (ovardane:s), the name of the Kuban River by Ptolemy is not a “wide river”, as Abaev suggests (Os. urux „wide” and don „water, river”), but rather a “stormy river” (Kabard. uer „stormy”). The Kuban flows through the former Adyghe territory (the ancestors of modern Adyghe, Circassians and Kabardins), but at the same time, Ossetians lived here.
24. Ουαχωζακος (ouakho:dzakos), Olbia; Οχωδιακοσ, the son of Dula (see Dula), the father of Azas and Stormais (see Στορμαισ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. egъedzhakIue „teacher”. Liya Akhedzhakova, the actress, Adyghe by nationality.
25. Ουμβηουαρος (ombe:ouaros), the son of Urgbaz (see Ουργβαζοσ), Olbia – Kabard. IumpIey "naughty, inanimate", uer „boisterous”.
26. Ουργβαζος (ourgbadzos), the father of Umbevar (see Ουμβηουαροσ), Olbia – Kabard. uerkъ "nobleman", badze "fly".
27. Ουργοι (ourgoi), according to Strabo one of the Sarmatian tribes – Kabard. uerkъ "nobleman". Cf. Ουργβαζοσ.
28. Ρηχουναγος (re:khounagos), the father of Kukunag (see Κουκοναγοσ), Latyshev – Kabard. erekhъu "well", negu "face".
29. Σαυροphoς (saurofos), the father of Pairisal (see Παιρισαλοσ) – Kabard. saur "special leather of high quality" ofa "covered".
30. Σθαζεις instead Σεσαζεισ (sesadzeis), the son of Insadz (see Ινσαζαγοσ) – Kabard. se "knife", sedze "blade of knife".
31. Χοζανια (khodzania), female name, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Kabard. khuedzhyn "spin".
32. Χοαροσαζος (khoarsadzos), the father of Abrag (see Αβροαγος), Tanais, Χουαρσαζος, Olbia – Kabard. khъuer "parable" sedze "blade of knife".
Marble slab from Olbia and its text
Second half of the 2nd century BC. Size: 380x300 mm.
(KNIPOVICH T.N., LEVI E.I. 1968, Table XL )
Translation of text on the slab: To good time! Strategists with Nautim, the son of Arguanag, led by Apollon Prostat, Theodor, son of Tumbag, Tryphon, son of Tryphon, Godarz, son of Farsei, Gistei, son of Saday, dedicated a gold necklace for the welfare of the city, for peace and for their own health and courage. Feodul, the son of Makag, served excellently. The Council and the people honored the strategists with a golden crown for the excellent performance of the post.
1. Αβνακος, Αβναγος (abnakos, abnagos), the father of Abnodz (see Αβνωζος) and Rathagos (see Ραθαγωσος) – Hung. eb „dog”, nagy “big”.
2. Αβνωζοσ (abno:zos), Olvia, according M. Vasmer (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 284)– Hung. ab „dog” and nyuz “to rip off, flay” (together there may be a “flayer”).
3. Βαγδοχος (baγdokhos), the son of Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), the brother of Godigas (see Γωδιγασος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος), Tanais, Latyshev – Hung badogos "tinsmith".
4. Βορυσ (borus), an inscription on vases according M.Vasmer (Ibid: 284) – absurd inscription for a vase “brown, red” (Os. bora „brown, red”). pefectly fit Hung. boros „wine”.
5. Γιλγοσ (gilgos), the son of Mandas (see Μανδασοσ), Tanais (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895: 115) – Hung. gyilkos "a murderer".
6. Γωδιγασος (go:digasos), the brother of Bagdokh (see Βαγδοχος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος), Tanais, Latyshev – Hung. gond "care" and igaz "truthful, real".
7. Δαλοσακος (dalosakos), the son og Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), thr brother of Bagdokh (see Βαγδοχος) and Godigas (see Γωδιγασος), Tanais, Latyshev – Hung. dalos "singer", agg "щld man".
8. Dule (Gen. Dulae, Alanian Prince at the Hungarian Chronicle Simon Keszai (ALEMANY AGUSTI. 2000: 4.43) – Hung. gyula (pronounced dyula) – the title of the second most important leader of the Hungarian tribal union, a later name.
9. Ιωδας (io:das), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Hung. ivadék „offspring”.
10. Ιωδεσμαγος (io:desmagos), Olbia – Hung. ivadék „offspring” and mag „seed”.
11. Μανδασοσ (mandasos), the father of Gilg (see Γιλγοσ) (Ibid) – Hung. mond "to speak", mondas "dictum, aphorism”.
12. Οσσιγασος (ossigasos), Tanais – Hung. össz „common”, egesz „whole, entire”.
13. Ραθαγωσος (rathago:sos), the father of Abnodz (see Αβνωζος), the son of Abnak (see. Αβνακος), Olbia, Latyshev – Hung. ró “to cut”, tag “member” (derivatives tagos and tagozodik “to divide into parts”).
14. Ρασσογος (rassogos), the father of Rakhoisak (see Ραχοισακοσ), Tanais – Hung. rosz "bad", szagos "odorous".
15. Ραχοισακος (rakhoisakos), Tanais– Hung. ró “to cut”, haj “hair”, szak “part”.
16. Σογος (sogos), Gorgippia, Tanais, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Hung. szagos "odorous".
1. Αρδαρισκος (ardariskos), Tamais, Latyshev – Chech. ardan “to act”, ritsq “sustenance”.
2. Αρδαρος (ardaros), 1. The son of Mastus (see. Μαστουσ); 2. The father of Midakh (see Μιδαχοσ) and Panaukh (see Παναυχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – the name should be interpreted in the Chechen language, since the names of Mastus, Midakh and their relatives, common in the Northern Black Sea region, are deciphered using Chechen. Perhaps Chech. ardan "to act" and Iar "peace, stillness" should be kept in mind.
3. Αρδοναστοσ (ardonastos), Tanais – Chech. ardan "to act", aьsta "hoe, hack".
4. Ασαιοι (asaioi), Sarmatian tribe, Ptolemy (Ases, Yasas, Iazyges) – the original name of the Ossetians. However, the question arises – why are the Ossetians called the Balkars the Ases? On the other hand, among the Chuvash, especially of the older age, there is a saying: “Epirus asem” (we are Ases). This name may originate from Chech āsa "belt, sash".
5. Γαος (gaos), Tanais, Knipovich – Chech. gIāz „goose”.
6. Γοργοσας (gorgosas), the father of Khakh (see Χαχας), Gorgippia – Chech. gorga „round”, āsa „belt, stipe”.
7. Θιαγαρος (thiagaros), the father of Midakh (see Μιδαχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chech. tІaьkhьara "last".
8. Μαστους (mastous), the son of Kothinas (see Κοθινασ), Tanais, Panticapeum – Chech. mas “feather”, тIāус "peacock". Apparently so was previously called a pheasant.
9. Κοθινας (kothinas), the father of Mast (see Μαστουσ), Panticapaeum – Chech. kutsan – the adjective for kuts“posture”.
10. Μαχαρης (makhare:s), the son of Mithridates VI Eupator, Kingdom of Pontus (Justi Ferdinand, 1895: 188) – Chech. maьkharan ”noisy, clamorous”.
11. Μιδαχος (midakhos), inscription in Phanagoria, the son of Thiaga (see Θιαγαροσ), the father of Sturan – Chech. mattakh, derivative of mettig "a place".
12. Οχοαρζανης (okhoardzane:s), the son of Patey (see Πατεισ), Tanais – Chech. oьkhu "flying"aьrzu "eagle", aьrzun "aquiline".
13. Παναυχος (panaukhos), the son of Ardar (see Αρδαροσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chech. pāna "novel", ōkhu is the participle from ākha "to plow".
14. Πατεις (pateis), the father of Okhoardzan (see Οχοαρζανησ), Tanais, Latyshev – since the name of Okhoardzan is well explained by the Chechen language, the name of his father must also be of Chechen origin. In this case, you can keep in mind Chech. pott "block of wood" in an indirect case with the ending–e.
15. Χαχας (khakhas), the son of Gorgos (see Γοργοσασ)- Chech. khēkhō "watchman", khьakha 1. "to languish," 2. "to doom".
16. Χοαργαρος (khoargaros), Tanais – Chech. khoar is a verbal noun from khoa "comprise", gara "kin, generation".
1. Βαλωδις (balo:dis), the son of Demetrios, the father of Loiagas (see) – Let. baluodis „dove”.
2. Βραδακος (bradakos), Panticapaeum – Lith. bradyty, Let. bradît “wade, ford”).
3. Κυρηακοσ (Kyreakos),the name is repeatedly found in the Northern Black Sea region (VINOGRADOV ANDREY. 2015. Chersonesus. Tombstone of Kyriakos,.. IV–V centuries.) – Lith. kūrėjas "creator" from kùrti "to build, to erect".
4. Λοιαγασ (loiagas), the son of Baluod (see Βαλωδις) – Lith. lojà – swearword, lojūgas "Gewohnheitsflucher" (FRAENKEL E. 1962. Band 1: 406).
5. Μαζαια (madzaia), the daugter of Masteira (see Μαστειρα), Lician, Μαζισ (madzis), Μαζασ (madzas) – Lith. mažas, Let. mazs „small”.
6. Οσμαρακος (osmarakos), the son of Amaiak (see. Αμαιακος), Tanais, Latyshev – Lith. asmuo "face, person", ragas „horn”).
7. Ουσταναος (oustanaos), Tanais – Lith. austinis "woven".
8. Παταικος (pataikos), Gorgippia – Lith. pataikus "obsequious".
9. Σαρον (saron), name of the area on the Borysthenes River according to Ptolemy – Let. sārņi "tailings, slag".
10. Σαυαγασκος (sauagaskos), perhaps Σαυαγακος (sauagakos), Phanagoria – Lith. sauga “protection, safety”, akis “eye”.
11. Σαυαγος (sauaγos), the names of three persons on the monuments of the Taman Peninsula, Panticapaeum – Lith. sauga “protection, safety”.
12. Τιργαταω (tirgatao:), the first wife of the king of Sinds Hekataios, Polyaenus – Let. tirgotājs “merchant”). Justi attributed here the name of the progenitor of the Scythians Targitaos [JUSTI FERDINAND 1895: 322]. The word is based on a Turkic stem meaning "trade". The Baltic tribes could have borrowed this word from the creators of one of the variants of the Corded Ware culture in the Baltics.
13. Χιμίρις (Khimiris, Phanagoreia, IV–Vth century C.E.) – toponym on the stele from the hamlet of Soleny (see. Ουσταναοσ) – Lith. kemeras "eupatorium", čemerys "hellebore". The genus of of flowering plants Eupatorium is named for Mithridates Eupator, the Bosporan king.
1. Αζαριον (adzarion), Tanais by Knipovich – maybe from Mord azor "a master, owner"?
2. Αρδαρακοσ (ardarakos), the son of Tryphon, Tanais, Latyshev – Arm. արդարացի (ardaraсi) „fair, rightly”.
3. Γοσων (gosο:n), Chersonesus, Vasmer – Arm. գուսան (gusan) "folk singer". Hübshman entered the word in the list of Persian borrowings (No.149), but notes that this word does not correspond to New Persian kūsān phonetically but does not offer any etymology (HÜBSCHMANN HEINRICH. 1972). In the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea Region there are several names with the meaning "singer", cf. Σκοπασισ, Ξοβασ (see Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon). On the other hand, the presence of Armenians in the Sarmatian environment is confirmed by the Ossetian-Armenian correspondences in anthroponymy, vocabulary and grammatical structures (KAMBOLOV T.T. 2006, 278-280).
As can be judged from the names of the Sarmatian onomasticon, the population of Great Scythia was multinational. Representatives of different nations lived here in peace and harmony for many centuries, which can be a good example for our time.