Start page

Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

Personal web site

?

Sarmatian Onomasticon


Representative sample


Based on data collected by V.V. Latyshev, Ladislav Zgusta, T.N. Knipovich, Max Vasmer a.o., V.I. Abayev, V.P. Petrov, János Harmatta, Agusti Alemany compiled their own lists of Scythian-Sarmatian names and realities and gave them their own transcripts or repeated and supplemented those made by their predecessors. These lists in various forms appear in the works of subsequent researchers and now it is not always possible to establish the source. Comparison of the available material with the list of Iranian names F. Justi (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895) or with the list of Olbian names (KNIPOVICH T.N., LEVI E.I. 1968) shows that, in prejudice about the exclusively Iranian language affiliation of the Scythians and Sarmatians, the researchers set the goal of restoring the “Scythian-Sarmatian "language. In accordance with this, they chose names that can only be decrypted by means of the Iranian languages. Particularly difficult cases were simply ignored. Also, little attention was paid to the kinship of carriers of individual names. When one of them is included in the list, one cannot ignore the names of his relatives, which often takes place. Meanwhile, the probability of a true interpretation is increased if the names of fathers and children are deciphered using the same language. If this cannot be done, the far-fetchedness of some decipherments becomes apparent.

There is evidence that the conclusion about the Iranian-speaking of the entire population of the Northern Black Sea region is hasty. An objectively compiled representative sample of names and realities from all the implicit epigraphy and historical materials will help establish the ethnic composition of the region under study. After involving in decryption, in addition to Iranian and other Indo-European languages, as well as Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Caucasian, it turned out that all available lexical material on the Northern Black Sea coast should be divided into two onomasticons – Scythian and Sarmatian, the boundary between which is impossible to establish. In addition, the presence of Anglo-Saxons in the Northern Black Sea Region, revealed during the research process, both in the Scythian and Sarmatian times, provided the basis for compiling a separate Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon, a significant part of which was involved in the compilation of the Sarmatian Onomasticon.

It is obvious that the epigraphic material cannot fully reflect the proportional composition of the ethnic diversity of the population of the Northern Black Sea region. In addition to the Greek colonists, almost no people left written evidence of their presence in this region. Only a few memorials of solid media contain inscriptions in local languages ​​by Greek letters. Numerous archaeological sites with texts in Greek were left by the inhabitants of the Black Sea-Azov coast. They contain information about the socio-economic relations and cultural life of Greek cities and the names of the most active part of their population. Only occasionally in them can you find non-Greek names of aborigines from among the tribal elite or the trade and economic class, who entered the life of the colonies. It is through them that the ethnic mosaic of the Northern Black Sea region of the Scythian-Sarmatian time is restored. Some idea of ​​the corresponding epigraphic monuments of the region is given by illustrations in the text.


Marble slab with scenes of sacrifice and a meal from Olbia

The first half of the 2nd century BC. Size: height 331-337, width 495 mm.
([bid, Table XXXVII)


Translation of the text on the slab: Being bread inspectors Theocles, son of Tharsiadam, Demetrius, son of Fokrit, Athenius, son of Konon, Nevtim, son of Heroksen, with Secretary Athenodor, son of Demagoras, this image was dedicated to the Hero of the Hearing.


Filed below, the Sarmatian onomasticon was compiled on the basis of Petrov's onomasticon (PETROV V.P. 1968: 118-143), but he was substantially supplemented by materials from other authors. The decryption of the names contained in it was taken mainly from the work of Abaev (ABAYAV V.I. 1979: 277-311). His obviously unsuccessful decryptions are not given here if there are more convincing options. The onomasticon was used to compile a representative sample to calculate the number of names that can be deciphered predominantly using one language, what is necessary to establish the ethnic composition of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Sarmatian period. Due to the ambiguity of the decryption, significant changes and additions are constantly made to the onomasticon, therefore, when using it, the latest version should be taken. From the list here in the amount of 303 glosses 49 can be decrypted using several languages ​​or well deciphered by Greek or Latin. They were not included in the representative sample. As a result, it turned out that out of 254 glosses, approximately one third is deciphered using Old English, one fourth by using Iranian languages, and half of them are only Ossetian and one third are Kudish. The Chuvash language decrypts 18% of the sample, 12% are Kabardian, 5% – Chechen, 2.5% – Turkic, 2% – Baltic and the same Finno-Ugric, one word was deciphered using the Armenian language. Specialists in individual languages ​​can make the necessary adjustments using the list below:

1. Ababa, Hababa (the mother of of Roman Emperor Maximianus, the Alanian woman) – V.I. Abayev explained the name as "Good weaver" on the basis of the OS. wafun "to weave" and Old Iran. *hu- "good". The last word is absent in the modern Iranian languages, and existed only in compound words of Ancient Iranian. It is noteworthy that Maximianus' father was a Goth Mickey. In this regard, the name can be considered to be of Old English origin – OE. āba, ōweb "fabric".

2. Αβδαρακος (abdarakos), Tanais – the name can have different explanations. V. Abayev proposed Os æf "water", Av dār "to hold, have", for example Os don-daræg. However similar words are present also in Kurdish av "water", dara "rich".

3. Αβνωζος (abno:zos), Olbia – OE ab "cloth" and neosian "explore".

4. Αβροαγος (abroagos), the son of Susulonos (see Σουσουλον), the strategos in Olbia; Αβραγοσ, the son of Sambut (see Σαμβουτοσ), the father of Kharaxenos (see Χαραξηνοσ), the son of Khuarsadzos (see Χυαρσαζοσ), Latyshev – Kabard. abragъue „great”.

5. Αγροι (aγroi), according to Strabo, some tribe near Lake Maeotis – Harmatta explains the name as "the first" (OIr. agra).

6. Addac, (Alanian king in Spain) – the name can be explained by means of the Iranian, Turkic, and Germanic languages.

7. Αδωλος (ado:los), the father of Batag (see. Βαταγος), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – чув. atalan "develop".

8. Αζιαος (adziaos), the father of Skartanos (see Σκαρτανοσ), Albia, Latyshev; Αζιασ (adzas), the father of Papas (see Παπασ), Gorgippia – Chuv. аçа «father».

9. Αζαριον (adzarion), Tanais by Knipovich – maybe from Mord azor "a master, owner"?

10. Ακασας (akasas) – "unharmed, healthy"(Os. ægas, igas, Hung. egesz) or "white ermine" (Turk. aq „white”, as „ermine”).

11. Αλανοι (alanoi), the name of a tribe of Alans – from OPers aryana „Arians”, OS.allon? However, taking into account the possibility of the presence of Anglo-Saxons in Sarmatia, we can assume that this is a modified name for the Angles (angloi → aŋloi → alŋoi → alanoi). The stem of the name has Turk oğlan "son, boy, young man". It is significant that the grandfather of the Gothic historian of Jordan wore a name Alanoviiamuth. Cf. Ρευκαναλοι.

12. Αλανορσοι (alanorsoi), another tribe of Alans – „White Alans” (Os. ors „white”)? Perhapse, Turkic oğlan "son, boy". The second partial word may originate from hors „horse”.

13. Αλδη (alde:), Alanian princess, a widow of Gorge I, the king of Georgia, the 11th cen – OE. ald “old”. A similar name (nickname) is good for a widow.

14. Αλεξαρθος (aleksarthos), Phanagoria – OGr. ἀλέξω "to defend", the second partial is a derivative from ἀραρισκω "to bind, protect, arm" (Cf. αρθμοσ "alliance, friendship") .

15. Αλουθαγος (alouthaγos), Olbia – „brewer” (Os. æluton, OE. ealuđ „beer”)

16. Αμαγη (amage:), Sarmatian queen – Ossetian has no match, OIran. ama „strong, power”. OE. hām "house, dwelling" and āga „owner”, ā „property, possession” fit perfectly phonetically and for the name of the queen.Obviously the name should be understood as "the mistress of the house".

17. Αμαδοκοι (amadokoi), according to Ptolemy some Sarmatian tribe, and on his map there are three more such toponyms – Chuv. mătăk 1. "short" 2. "grumpy, quarrelsome"; -a – a prothetic vowel.

18. Αμαιακος (amaiakos), Tanais – "builder" (Oc. amajun „to build”, amajæg „builder”).

19. Αμαρδιακοσ (amardiakos), Tanais – Os amædtag „жертва”, "victim" is doubtful. Old Gr διακοσ "servant" and αμαρα "ditch, tranch", that is "digger, ditcher" could be better. This name can be translation from unknown language to Greek.

20. Αμβουστος (amboustos), Tanais – maybe, the name has Latin origin as some Roman consuls had the name Ambustos (Lat. *ambŏsta "a thing can be taken by two hands").

21. Αμωμαιος, (amo:maios), Olbia, Vasmer – Gr. άμάομαι "to gather".

22. Αμωσπαδος (amo:spados), Olbia, Latyshev – Gr. άμάω "to cut", σπάδος "eunuch".

23. Anbazuk (a ruler on the Northern Caucasus, 1-2 cen. AD) – Os bazuk „arm, shoulder”.

24. Αξεινος Ποντος (akseinos pontos), Black Sea – Os. æxsin, OPers. axšaina „blue, grey-blue”.

25. Αορσοι (aorsoi), a Sarmatian tribe – maybe this is other writing of the name of the Avars (cf. Ir awara "a vagabond").

26. Αραβατης (arabate:s), Alanian hireling serving Emperor Issak I Komnenos – Turk arabačy "a driver".

27. Αργουαναγος (argouanagos), the son of Karakht, the father of Karakht, Kenozart (see Καινοξαρθοσ) and Nawtim, the princeps in Olbia, Latyshev, Justi – Kabard. eru "angry, cruel", guenykhъ "sin". It was not possible to decrypt all the names by one language.

28. Αργοδας (arγodas), Panticapaeum, Αργωδα (argo:da), a city in Chersonesos Taurica – Os. arğaun ( arğud participle) „to sanctify”.

29. Αρδαβδα (ardabda) or Αβδαρδα (abdarba), the Alanian or Taurian name of the town of Theodosia, translated by an unknown Greek author as "the city of seven gods" – Os. ard “oath” (originally a deity sworn by), avd “seven”.

30. Αρδαβουριος (ardabourios), the name of the three Byzantine commanders – OE. eard "circumstances", "coincidence", "fate", bora "son".

31. Αρδαγδακοσ (ardagdakos) – чув. artak “bliss”, “joy”, "well-being" tăkăs "tart", "cramped", "frequent".

32. Αρδαρισκος (ardariskos), Tanais – Os. ardar “leader”? A person receives his at birth, for a child this name is not suitable. Better Kurd. e'rd, erd "land", êrîş "attack, robbery".

33. Αρδαρος (ardaros), 1. The son of Mastus (see. Μαστουσ); 2. The father of Midakh (see Μιδαχοσ) and Panaukh (see Παναυχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – the name should be interpreted in the Chechen language, since the names of Mastus, Midakh and their relatives, common in the Northern Black Sea region, are deciphered using Chechen. Perhaps Сhech. ardan "to act" and Iar "peace, stillness" should be kept in mind.

34. Αρδοναγαρος (ardonaγaros), Tanais, the father of Ithiochakos – Kud. ard, "land", noqar "quarrel".

35. Αρδοναστοσ (ardonastos), Tanais – Chech. ardan "to act", aьsta "hoe, hack".

36. Αρδαρακος (ardarakos) – Chech. ardan "to act", arakkhossa "to throw away",

37. Αρθαμων (arthamo:n), the son of Ospinnaz (see Οσπινμαζοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously like artiman (see. Αρθιεμανοσ), modified under the influence of Gr. αρταμος "butcher, cook".

38. Αρθιεμανος (arthiemanos), Berezan' – the letter θ in most cases reflects aspirated t (th), therefore, for the explanation should be taken OE. earđ "plowing" and mann "man", "plowman".

39. Αριι (arii), a Sarmatian tribe – the tribe name originates from the self-designation of the Indo-Iranian tribes. F. Justi cites a number of personal names with the basis of αρια. The word is Iranian.

40. Αριφαρνηες (aripharne:s), according to Diodorus of Sicily „the name of the king of the tribe Θατεισ” in Maeotis – in the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea Region is found repeatedly. In Iranian mythology farn/xvarna is “divine power”, “heavenly grace”, (Os. farn „tranquility”, Afg. parnā „sleepy, lethargic”). However, words having this root are also found in Germanic languages. The leader of the Goths, Farnobius, is known from history, who died while trying to capture the city of Illyricum in 377. Holthausen also cites the Germanic names Farnoin and Farnoulf (HOLTHAUSEN F. 1934: 27). He explains OE. farnian “to have happiness” as a loan from Old Icelandic farna-sk (HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974: 98). In general, in Germanic languages there are words of this root, which mean “fern” (Ger. Farn). Tajik farn also means “fern”. According to popular beliefs, fern flower brings happiness, so we can assume that the word farn was present in both Iranian and Germanic languages with the meaning “happiness, peace, grace”. Obviously, it is associated with Gr. φάρμακον "medicinal / poisonous plant", medicine, on the basis of which Frisk restores Gr. *φάρμα "enchantment, magic". Thus, the interpretation of names with the root farn can be ambiguous, if not limited to searches only in Iranian languages. Diodorus calls Arifarn the king of the Thracians, what is considered a mistake. Since he was drawn into the struggle for the throne of the Bosporan kingdom, a hypothesis was put forward about his Sarmatian origin, again based on the Iranian interpretation of the word farn. The Thracians for some time populated the territory adjacent to the Iranian and Germanic tribes, so a similar word could be present in their language. Thus, Diodorus could not be mistaken. The first part of the word can also be explained using Germanic languages: OE ār, āre, Ger. Ehre „honor”.

41. Ασαιοι (asaioi), Sarmatian tribe, Ptolemy (Ases, Yasas, Iazyges) – the original name of the Ossetians. However, the question arises – why are the Ossetians themselves called the Ases the Balkars? On the other hand, among the Chuvash, especially of the older age, there is a saying: “Epirus asem” (we are Ases). This name may originate from Chech. āsa "belt, sash".

42. Ασανος, (asanos), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Chuv. ăsan "black grouse".

43. Ασπακος (aspakos), the father of Gosakos (see Γωσακος), Tanais – names with the root asp, both male and female, are very common among Iranian-speaking peoples, as well as Greeks. Their popularity does not exclude borrowing by other nations. In the original, they come from the Pers. asp "horse" either from Gr. ἀσπ, whose etymology remains unclear (FRISK H. 1970: 1, 166). Examination of the names of this category will not help determine the ethnic composition of Sarmatia, so this can be abandoned.

44. Αταμαζας (atamadzas), the son of Pap (see Παπασ), Gorgippia, the son of Kars (see. Καρσασ), an inscription in Tanais – Chuv. etem “man” and ǎça 1. “male”, 2. “thunder and lightning”. The name of Pap means thunder.

45. Ατασας (atasas), Tanais – Chuv. ataslan "to knot, mat" (-lan- verbal suffix of noun).

46. Αυασισ (auasis), the spouse of Itia (see Ιτιη) and the father of Sim (see Σιμοσ ) and Bol (see. Βολασ), Panticapaeum – Kurd. awaz "vois".

47. Αυραζακος (auradzakos), the son of Rodon (see Ροδων), Tanais, Latyshev – the name admits many different interpretations by means of the Iranian languages (Av. varāza „boar”, urvāza, "friendly, cheerful", Afg. awāra „tramp, vagabond”), but the Kurds words are best phonetically: avraz „height, tall” and aqas "so much".

48. Αφθειμακος (aphtheimakos), Tanais – Os. ævdæimag „seventh”.

49. Αψαχος (apsakhos), Tanais, Knipovich; Αψωγασ (apso:gas), Olvia, Latyshev – may be connected with Os. āfsā „mare” or with Kabar. epsykhyn "to get off the horse" ("infantryman").

50. Babai, the Sarmatian king – Chuv. papay „thunder”.

51. Βαγδοσαυοσ (bagdosauos), the son of Sauaios (see Σαυαιωσοσ), Tanais – Iranian words meaning "happiness" (West Iran. *baxta-, East Iran *vayda-) are not appropriate phonetically. The common component of bagdo – in this and the next name – pays attention. It can be decrypted by OE. beag "crown, wreath" and dōn "to do, create, establish, lay". The second part of the names of the father and the son σαυ corresponds to OE. sāwan “to sow”, “to plant”, "to cultivate". With a little imagination, you can build a name using these names.

52. Βαγδοχος (baγdokhos), the son of Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), the brother of Godigas (see Γωδιγασος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος), Tanais, Latyshev – as noted above, Iranian words in the meaning of "happiness" will not appropriate. OE beag "crown, wreath", dōn "to do, create, esteblish, lay" and eoh "yew" suit as the best. This has something in common with the meaning of the name Sauaios (see Σαυαιωσοσ). According to ancient beliefs, the yew wreath had magical properties.

53. Βαγης (baγe:s), Gorgippia – according to Abaev, the abbreviated form of the name with the word “god” (Old Ir. *baγa "god", such a word has not been preserved in Ossetian). However, it should be borne in mind also OE. beag "crown, wreath".

54. Βαδαγος (badaγos), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Iedzrad (see Ιεζδραδοσ); Βαδακησ,the strategos in Olbia, the son of Radampson (see Ραδαμψων)– the name "sitting" (Os. badæg still used as a proper name) does not correspond to the status of a strategos. The names of their fathers are deciphered using the Old English language, therefore these names must also be of Anglo-Saxon origin (OE beadu “struggle, war”, āc "oak"). Cf. Βιδακησ, Βωρακοσ

55. Βαιορασπος (baioraspos), Tanais – Kurd. beyar “hill, mountain pasture” and hespajo “horse driver, herder” related semantically. Both words have no correspondence in Iranian languages.

56. Βαιορμαιος (baiornaios), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Papias – Kurd. beyar “hill, mountain pasture”, meywe „fruit”.

57. Βαναδασπος (banadaspos), the king of the Sarmatian tribe of Yazygs – accordind to M. Vasmer, something like a “victorious horse” vanat-aspa (Old Ir. van "to win" and asp „horse” ) (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 307).

58. Βανας (banas), Panticapaeum – OE. bana "murderer".

59. Βαστακας (bastakas), Tanais – Os. bæstag „local, countryman”.

60. Βαταγος (batagos), the son of Adol (see. Αδωλος) – Chuv. patak "stick".

61. Beorgus, the Alanian king who invaded Italy in the V cent. – OE beorg 1. “mountain”, 2. “protection”, 3. “refuge”.

62. Bevka, the Sarmatian king – Kurd. belg "leaf".

63. Βιδακης (bidake:s), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – OE. bid "strength", āc "oak". Cf. Βωρακοσ.

64. Βιστης (biste:s), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Shughni, Yaghnobi bīst „sinus chest”.

65. Βολασ, the son of Auasis (see. Αυασισ) and the brother of Sim (see Σιμοσ) – Kurd. bol "sufficient".

66. Βορασπος (boraspo:s), the archon in Tanais, Latyshev – common Ir. bor/bur „brown, yellow” and. aspa „horse”.

67. Βορυς (borus), the inscription on the vases – Hung. boros „wine”.

68. Βραδακος (bradakos), Panticapaeum – "wide ax"(OE. brād "wide", acas, ǽces “ax”).

69. Βωρακος (bo:rakos), Gorgippia – OE bora "son", āc "oak". Cf. Βιδακησ

v

70. Βωρnωn (bo:rno:n), the son of Radampson (see Ραδαμψσων) – OE beorn "warrior prince".

71. Βωροψαζος (bo:ropsadzos), the son of Kardzey (see Καρζεισ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. bgъury, the verb prefix "stay close", psydze "flood".

72. Γαγγαιος (gangaios), the father of Sambion (see Σαμβιων), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. gang "way, trip", ea "water, river".

73. Γαος (gaos), Tanais, Knipovich – Chech. gIāz „goose”.

74. Γοδοσαυος (godosauos), Tanais – OE. god "god", sāwan "sow".

75. Γοργοσας (gorgosas), the father of Khakh (see Χαχας), Gorgippia – Chech. gorga „round”, āsa „belt, stipe”.

76. Γοσων (gosο:n), Chersonesus, Vasmer – Arm. gusan "folk singer". Hübshman entered the word in the list of Persian borrowings, but notes that this word does not correspond to New Persian kūsān phonetically. In the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea Region there are several names with the meaning "singer", cf. Σκοπασισ, Ξοβασ (see Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon). On the other hand, the presence of Armenians in the Sarmatian environment is confirmed by the Ossetian-Armenian correspondences in anthroponymy, vocabulary and grammatical structures (KAMBOLOV T.T. 2006, 278-280).

77. Γωαρ (go:ar), Alanian leader in Galia in the beginning of 5th cent. – OE. gear “defense”, gear "ready". See Eochar.

78. Γωδιγασος (go:digasos), the son of Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), the brotherr of Bafdokh (see Βαγδοχος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. god "бог" and egesa "horror, fear".

79. Γωσακος (go:sakos), the son of Aspak (see Ασπακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. gōs "goose" and æg "egg".

80. Δαλοσακος (dalosakos), the son of Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), the brother of Bagdokh (see Βαγδοχος) and Godigas (see Γωδιγασος), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. deall "proud, bold", ōs "pagan god", āc "oak".

81. Δαναρασμακος (danarasmakos), the son of Odiard (see. Οδιαρδοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. đān "moist", "wet land", ear "lake", smæcc "taste, smell".

82. Δανδακη (dandake), the name of the area on the coast of Crimea, Ptolemy – from Os. dændag "tooth". If you mean some kind of rock in the shape of a tooth, then such an explanation may be good, but if it's just a mountain, then you can accept Turk. dan daqy, where dan and similar may have different meanings (for example, “glory”) when daqy is „mountain” (theisafet from dağ).

83. Δανδαριοι (dandarioi), the name of the people in the lower part of the Kuban River and in Meotia, Strabo – the lower part of the Kuban lies between the Azov and Black Seas, the Kurd. dan "inside" and derya/darya „sea” are well suited to explain the name of the people, "surrounded by the sea".

84. Δουαραγος (douaragos), Berezan island – since there are salt deposits on the island and it has been mined since ancient times, it’s best to explain the name by Chuv. tǎвar „salt”.

85. Dula, the Alanian Prince according to the Hungarian chronicler Simon of Kéza – Kabard. tIyale "inch".

86. Eochar, an Alanian leader – interpretating the name is best by OE eoh “horse” and ār “messenger”. However, there is an opinion that Eochar and Γωαρ (see) are one and the same person.

87. Ευβαρνακης (eubarnake:s), the father of Oxardodz (see Οξαρδωζισ), Tanais – OE eow „yew”, barn „child”.

88. Ζαβαγιος (dzabagios), Gorgippia – „walker” (Os. cæwæg). You can also consider Chuv. çupakh "bream" and Kabard. jabeguu "thin, skinny".

89. Zacatae, a tribe in Asian Sarmatia, Pliny – Kabard. zekъeut "standing next to".

90. Ζαντικος (dzantikos), the Prince of The Iazyges (Asses) – Chuv. çun „to burn”, tek „always”. Chuvash expression: "We are the Asses"

91. Ζαρανδοσ (dzarandoς), the father of Mardavos (see Μαρδαυοσ), Tanais, Latzshev – Chuv. çuran „dismounted”, tus „friend”.

92. Ζαρινα (dzarina), the queen of the Saka, Ctesias – common Iranian zarin „gold”.

93. Ζουρης (dzoures), Tyras – Kurd. zor- „strength”.

94. Ζuardani, a tribe in Asian Sarmatia, Pliny – Kabard. zauerey "militant".

95. Ηλμανος (elmanos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. el „alien”, mann „man”.

96. Ηρακας (erakas), Panticapaeum, name of the chief translator of the Alans, beginning of the 3rd cen. – Chuv. erekh „wine” and ăс “to scoop” (“a butler”).

97. Θαβεις (thabeis), Panticapaeum, female name – OE đeowe “maid”.

98. Θιαβωγος (thiabo:gos), the son of Siomakh (see Σιωμαχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. chapak "roach, dace".

99. Θιαγαρος (thiagaros), the father of Midakh (see Μιδαχοσ), Tanais? Latyshev – Chech. tІaьkhьara "last".

100. Θιαρμακος (thiarmakos), the son of Chrysippus, Tanais, Latyshev –in accordance with the Greek name of the father "Golden Horse", the name of the son should also be Greek, but nothing suitable for interpretation was found in Greek. Offered OE. đeor “ignition” macian "to make".

101. Θυσκης (thuske:s), Olbia – Os. tusk’a "boar", originated from the Turkic čočqa „pig”, Hung. tuskó „stump”, tüske „thorn”, OE. tūsc „tusk”.

102. Ιαζαδαγος, Ιεζδαγοσ (iadzadagos, iedzdagos), Olbia, Vasmer – Kabard. iIa "painted", zadagъ "mountain steepness".

103. Ιασανδανακος (iasandanakos), Latyshev? – Kabard. isen "put up", denagъ "boundary" (boundary sign).

104. Ιαυακος (iauakos), Tanais – Türk. jabaq „horse”. Cf. Ιαφαγοσ

105. Ιαφαγος (iaphagos), Olbia, Vasmer – the name horse in another Turkic language (Gag. jafak „horse”). Cf. Ιαυακοσ

106. Ιδρειβαλις (idreibalis – initial sign is damaged), the son of Rapak (see. Ραπακησ), Olbia – like the name of the father, the name of the son has Greek origin (cf. Gr ιδρισ "competent" from οιδω «I know», βαλισ, βαλλισ – names of various plants).

107. Ιεζδραδος (iedzrados), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. đræd „thread, wire”, īse(r)n “iron”, which originated from Old Turkic jerz (later jez) „copper”.

108. Ιναρμαζος (inarmadzos), the son of Kukodon (see Κουκοδων), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Kabard. in "great", armuzh' "laggard".

109. Ινσαζαγος (insadzagos), the son of Sesadz (see Σθαζεισ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. in "grat", sedze "blade of knife".

110. Ιραμβουστας (iramboustas), Tanais, Knipovich – obviously the origin is the same as the name Αμβουστοσ (see).

111. Ιραυαδις (irauadis), Tanais, Knipovich – Chuv. ir „morning”, avăt „sing, warble”.

112. Ιρβις (irbis), Tanais – Turkic. irbiz “lynx, leopard”.

113. Ιργανος (irganos), Tanais, Knipovich – Chuv. yrkhan „thin, meager”.

114. Itaxes, Alan leader in the 8th century, Agustí Alemany – Chuv. iytă açi "male dog".

115. Ιωδας (io:das), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – OE. eađe „pleasant friendly”.

116. Ιωδεσμαγος (io:desmagos), Olbia – OE. eađe „pleasant friendly” and smæcc „taste, smell”.

117. Καδανακος (kadanakos), the son of Nawag (see Ναυαγοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. кIэ "finish", denagъ "boundary".

118. Καινοξαρθος (kainoksarthos), the son of Argouanag (see Αργουαναγος), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously the "broken oath" (Chuv. kainǎ "ripped apart, dismissed", shărt „oath”).

119. Candac, the leader of the union of the Alans, Scirii, and Sadagars, V cent. – OE. can "can" or gæn, related to Goth. *gain “weapon”, and deag “fit, ready”.

120. Καραστος (karastos), the son of Sarat, Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. kărăs „poor” and tus "friend".

121. Καρσας (karsas), the father of Atamaz (see Αταμαζασ ), Tanais – Chuv. kărs „harsh, sharp”.

122. Καρζεις (kardzeis), the son of Boropsadz (see Βωροψαζοσ) – Kabard. kIarts "acacia, robinia".

123. Κασακος (kasagos), the son of Kartsey (see Καρζεισ), the strategos in Olbia, Κασαγοσ (kasakos), the father of Arsewakh and Kasken, Olbia, Latyshev – Türk. qazaq „tramp, free, independent person”.

124. Κασκηνος (kaske:nos), the son of Kasag (see Κασακοσ) – Kabard. keskIen "shudder".

125. Καφαναγος (kaphanagos), the father of Mourdag) (see Μουρδαγοσ), Olbia, ? – Kabard. kъafenyge “dance”.

126. Κοθινας (kothinas), the father of Mast (see Μαστουσ), Panticapeum – OE cođu "disease", nasu "nose".

127. Κουζαιος (koudzaios), Olbia, ? – Chuv. kuç, Tat. küz and similar „eye”, common Turkic aj „moon”.

128. Κουκαις (koukais), the son of Arsalion, the strategos in Olbia, Latyshev – Gr. κου̃κι a kind of palm Hyphaena thebaica, Kabard. kъeukIa "killed". According to father's name, the name of the son is also Greek.

129. Κουκοδων (koukodon), the father of Inarmaz (see Ιναρμαζοσ), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Kabard. kъeukIa "killed", udyn "strike", Gr. κου̃κι a kind of palm, but taking into account the name of the son, the father's name also belonged to the Adyghe (Adyghe – the ancestors of the Kabardins).

130. Κουκοναγος (koukonagos), the son of Rekhovnag (see Ρηχουναγοσ), a market administrator in Olbia – Kabard. kъeukIa "killed", negu "face".

131. Λειμανος (leimanos), 1. the son of Pgidas (see Πιδασ), the father of aspandan, Tanais. 2. the son of Phidas, the grandson of Phidas? Pantexapeum Latyshev – Os. limæn „friend”.

132 Λικος (likos), the son of Spargapeithes – by OE līc "body" could be called a man of large stature.

133. Λιμνακος (limnakos), Gorgippia – also from Os. limæn „friend”.

134. Λογχατης (longchate:s), Lucian – Longhates was the friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) and helped him to kidnap a bride Masaia (see Μαζαια) – the name can be explained as "long-haired" (OE long "long", hæd “hair”).

135. Μαδα (mada), female name, Vasmer – Os. madæ „mother” (similar words are present in other Iranian languages).

136. Μαδωις (mado:is), the son of Sambation, Tanais, Latyshev – both the father's name and the name of the son can be decrypted using several languages.

137. Μαζαια (madzaia), the daugter of Masteira (see Μαστειρα) – OE. māse "titmouse". A slight phonetic non-conformity may be neglected, bearing in mind that the name of the mother is Anglo-Saxon.

138. Μαης (mae:s), Panticapaeum, Vasmer, Μαεω:σ, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – probability of origin from Os. mæj(æ) „moon” is the same as that of the Kurd. maî „other”, Afg. māji „liquid”, Tat., Kaz. may „fat” or Kabard. mey „wild apple tree”.

139. Μαισης (maise:s), Gorgippia – Kabard. maice “sharp saber, sharp knife”.

140. Μαιτωνιον (maito:nion), according to Ptolemy, a town on the banks of the Dniester (Tiras) – obviously the name of the town originate from the widespread Ir.majdan „place, area”.

141. Μαιωσαρα (maio:sara), Panticapaeum, Vasmer – see Μαησ, Μαεω:σ.

142. Μακαγος (makagos), the son of Theodulos, Olbia? Knipovich, Levi – the name is not Greek, OE. mæcg "man", æg "egg".


Marble slab from Olbia and its text

Second half of the 2nd century BC. Size: 380x300 mm.
(KNIPOVICH T.N., LEVI E.I. 1968, Table XL )


Translation of text on the slab: To good time! Strategists with Nautim, the son of Arguanag, led by Apollon Prostat, Theodor, son of Tumbag, Tryphon, son of Tryphon, Godarz, son of Farsei, Gistei, son of Saday, dedicated a gold necklace for the welfare of the city, for peace and for their own health and courage. Feodul, the son of Makag, served excellently. The Council and the people honored the strategists with a golden crown for the excellent performance of the post.


143. Μαλδαγος (maldagos), Phanagoria, Latyshev – Chuv. mul „property” and tăkă „prosperous”.

144.Μαμμαρος (mammaros), Panticapaeum, Vasmer – Kurd. mam "relative", mar "marriage".

145. Μανδασος (mandasos), had the son Gilg (Γιλγοσ), Tanais – both names are of Hungarian origin – Hung. mond "speak", mondas "dictum, aphorism”, gyilkos "killer".

146. Μανιαγος (maniagos), the son of Pocedion, Tanais – Gr. μανιακησ "gold necklace", Arm. manyak „necklace”.

147. Μαρδαυος (mardauos), the son of Zarandos (see Ζαρανδοσ), Tanais? Latyshev – Chuv. marta "beehive", ăvăс "wax, honeycomb".

148. Μαρζακος (mardzakos), Panticapaeum – From Os. mærzun „to sweep” or from Kabard. marzha „cry, call”? Hung. morczol “crumble”, Chech. marzō 1. „sweetness”, 2. „husband's relative”.

149. marha (battle cry of the Sarmats, according to Ammianus Marcellinus) – it is based on some Iranian word (Os. margæ „hit!, kill!, death!”, Kurd. merg „death”). Kabard. marzhe meaning “cry, call” and at the same time was a call to move forward. Obviously, this exclamation was used in the North Caucasus by many peoples.

150. Μασταρους (mastarouos), the son of Mast (see Μαστουσ), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – in the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea Region there are several names containing the root mast, corresponding to Iranian words with the meaning "drunk". Abaev gives them the meaning of “angry,” but avoids explaining the Anglo-Saxon name Kotin (see Κοθινασ), Mastar’s grandfather and Mast’s father. Their names and other similar ones are also decrypted with the help OE māst “mast”.

151. Μαστειρα (masteira), the Alanian wife of the Bosporan king Leukanor, the mother of Masaia (see Μαζαια) – OE. māst “mast”, āre “honor, dignity”.

152. Μαστους (mastous), the son of Kothinas (see Κοθινασ), Tanais, Panticapeum – OE. māst “mast”. See Μασταρουσ.

153. Μευακοσ (meuakos), the father of Navak (Ναυακοσ), Tanais – convincing interpretations not found for father's and son's names.

154. Μιδαχος (midakhos), inscription in Phanagoria, the son of Thiaga (see Θιαγαροσ), the father of Sturan – Chech. mattakh, derivative of mettig "a place".

155. Μουγισαγος (mougisagos), the son of Asan (see Ασανος), Olbia, Latyshev – Os. mugǽ "semen" and sag "deer".

156. Μουρδαγος (mourdagos), the son of Kafanag (see Καφαναγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. murtak "brittle".

157. Ναβαζος (nabadzos), 1. the son of Numenios, the strategos in Olbia; 2. the son of Cimbros, Tanais, Latyshev – Kurd. nab "clean, pure" and aza "bold", Kurdish female name Nabat existed (JUSTI FERDINAND, 1895, 218).

158. Ναμγηνος (namge:nos), the son of Neikodrom, the strategos in Olbia, Latyshev – “eminent” (Os. nomgin from nom „name”).

159. Ναρακον στομα (Narakon stoma), according to ancient historians, one of the branches of the Danube Delta, is well-suited to the narrow outfall interpretation when combined Os. naræg „narrow” and Gr. στομα "mouth, throat".

160. Ναυαγος (navagos), the father of Kdanak (see Καδανακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. ne "yey", vagъue "star" .

161. Νιχεκος (nikhekos), Gorgippia – Os. nix „forehead”, кабард nekhъykIe “worst”.

162. Ξαρθανος (ksarthanos), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously the same as Σκαρτανοσ – Turkic čortan/šortan „pike, luce” (Chuv. çărttan).

163. Ξησσαγαρος (kse:ssagaros), the father of the strategos Demetrios, Olbia – Chuv. čee „cunning, insidious", sukkăr „blind”.

164. Ξοβας (ksobas), Pantucapeum, Σκοπασισ, the Scythian king, Herodotus – OE. scop „poet, singer”.

165. Οδιαρδος (odiardos), the father of Danarasmak (see Δαναρασμακος), Tanais – OE. wōd „jealousy, rage” and eard „nature, fate”.

166. Ολθακος (olthakos), according to Plutarch, the ruler of the Dandarian tribe (see Δανδαριοι) – Kurd. 1. ol "troop, army" and taqî "test". 2. ol "faith, religion" and teka "plea, prayer".

167. Ομρασμακοσ (omrasmakos), the father of Kharakst (see Χαρακστος), Tanais – OE. ampre "sorrel". Similar words in the Germanic languages come from I.-E *am(p)ra „sour” (first of all, plant acid) (Kluge Friedrich. 1989, 26).The second part of the word corresponds well to the OE. smæc "taste".

168. Οξαρδωζις (oksardo:dzis), the son of Eubarnak (see Ευβαρνακησ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. oxa „ox, bull”, -r is an epenthesis, dwæs „foolish”.

169. Οροντης (oronte:s),a very common name in Persia, there are several names in the Northern Black Sea region – Av. aurvant “fast, bold, strong” (Ossetian has no similar word). Chuv ar „man” and ant „oath” are also well suited. Obviously, this is a popular name among different nations.

170. Οσμαρακος (osmarakos), the son of Amaiak (see. Αμαιακος), Tanais, Latyshev – „the murderer his wife” (Os. osæ "wife" marun „to kill”).

171. Οσπινμαζος (ospinmadzos), the son of Athamon (see Αρθαμων), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. ōs "pagan god", penn "fence", macian "to make".

172. Οσσιγασος (ossigasos), Tanais – Hung. össz „common”, egesz „whole, entire”.

173. Ουαμψαλαγος (ouampsalagos), Olvia, Knipovich – Kabard. auan "mockery", psalъegъu „interlocutor”).

174. Ουαρα (ovara) Ουαροσ, Tanais – no doubt this is an Iranian word meaning “tramp” (Afg. avāra, тTal. awərə, Kurd. êperо a.o.).

175. Ουαρδανης (ovardane:s), the name of the Kuban River by Ptolemy is not a “wide river”, as Abaev suggests (Os. urux „wide” and don „water, river”), but rather a “stormy river” (Kabard. uer „stormy”). The Kuban flows through the former Adyghe territory (the ancestors of modern Adyghe, Circassians and Kabardins), but at the same time, Ossetians lived here.

176. Ουαχωζακος (ouakho:dzakos), Olbia; Οχωδιακοσ, the son of Dula (see Dula), the father of Azas and Stormais (see Στορμαισ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. egъedzhakIue „teacher”. Liya Akhedzhakova, the actress, Adyghe by nationality.

177. Ουμβηουαρος (ombe:ouaros), the son of Urgbaz (see Ουργβαζοσ), Olbia – Kabard. Iumpey "naughty, inanimate", uer „boisterous”.

178. Ουργβαζος (ourgbadzos), the father of Umbevar (see Ουμβηουαροσ), Olbia – Kabard. uerkъ "nobleman", badze "fly".

179. Ουργοι (ourgoi), according to Strabo one of the Sarmatian tribes – Kabard. uerkъ "nobleman". Cf. Ουργβαζοσ.

180. Ουστανος (oustanos), Tanais – Lith. austinis "woven".

181. Ουταφαρνης (outapharne:s), Ουαταφαρνησ, "deity", inscription on an amulet from the Kuban region – Chuv.vută „male and female water spirits”, parne “gift”. The amulet may have the meaning of protection from the water element.

182. Οχοαρζανης (okhoardzane:s), the son of Patey (see Πατεισ), Tanais – Chech. oьkhu "flying"aьrzu "eagle", aьrzun "aquiline".

183. Παιρισαλος (pairisalos), the son of Saurof (see Σαυροφοσ) and the father of Revsinal (see Ρευσιναλοσ), Pantecapeum – Chuv. payǎr "proper", sulǎ "ferry, transportation".

184. Παλακος (palakos), the son of Silur (see Σκιλουροσ), the leader of the Roxolani – OE pæl "pillar"āc "oak".

185. Παναυχος (panaukhos), the son of Ardar (see Αρδαροσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chech. pāna "novel", ōkhu is the participle from ākha "to plow".

186. Παπας (papas), the son of Azis (see Αζισ), Gorgippia – Chuv. papay "thunder".

187Παρσπανακος (parspanakos), Olbia? – Os. fars „side”, fæjnæg „board”.

188. Παταικος (pataikos), Gorgippia – Lith pataikus "obsequious".

189. Πατεις (pateis), the father of Okhoardzan (see Οχοαρζανησ), Tanais, Latyshev – since the name of Okhoardzan is well explained by the Chechen language, the name of his father must also be of Chechen origin. In this case, you can keep in mind Chech. pott "block of wood" in an indirect case with the ending–е.

190. Πηρακος (pe:rakos), Olbia? – Os. piræg “wool carder”.

191. Πιδας (pidas) 1. Φιδασ, the father of Leman (см Λειμανοσ), Tanais. 2. Πιδασ, the grandson of Fidas, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Os. fyd, fidæ „father”.

192. Πορατα (porata), the Prut River in Scythian, Greek name Πιρητοσ – In Chuvashia there is a river Parat , the left tributary of the Volga whose name can go back to the disappeared in the Chuvash language *parat “ravine” (KORNILOV G.E. 1987: 54).

193. Πουρτακης (pourthake:s), Πουρταιοσ (pourtaios), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. pūr "snipe", "bittern",đaccian "to hit, touch." The second name is a modified version of the first.


At right: Plate A from Tanais

Material: marble, approx. 175-211 AD. Size: height 1920, width 730 mm. It is stored in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
(Photo from Wikipedia)


194. Ραδαμασις (radamasis), Ραδαμειστοσ (radameistos), Ραδαμσαδισ (radamsadis), Ραδαμψσων (radampso:n) a.o. – Old Iranian *fratama „first” is proposed to explain these and similar names. (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895, 257). However, referring it to any modern Iranian language is not possible.

195. Rasparaganus, the king of Roxolania and Sarmatia, according to the inscription of the times of the emperor Hadrian – OE rǽs "assault", faru, fōr "campaign, raid" ægen "proper".

196. Ρασσογος (rassogos), the father of Rakhoisak (see Ραχοισακοσ), Tanais – Os. ræsog "transparent".

197. Ραθαγωσος (rathago:sos), the father of Avnodz (see Αβνωζος) – OE. hrađe “swift” and gōs “goose”.

198. Ραχοισακος (rakhoisakos), Tanais– “piercing deer” (Os. ræxoj-sag).

199. Respondial, Alanian king in Gaul, 406 – Lat. respondere “respond”.

200. Ρευρομαρος (reuromaros),the sob of Sipelag (see Σειπελαγοσ) – OE. reowe "cloak", reoma "leather" -r is a suffix to indicate an actor.

201. Ρευσιναλος (reusinalos), the son of Pairsal (see Παιρισαλησ), the grandson of Saurof (see Σαυροφ), Pantucapeum, Latyshev – since the name of Pairsal is deciphered in Chuvash, the name of his son must also have a correspondence in the Chuvash language. Chuv. ĕrevĕç "ladies' man" and inel "appease" fit wel.

202. Ρηχουναγος (re:khounagos), the father of Kukunag (see Κουκοναγοσ), Latyshev – Kabard. erekhъu "well", negu "face".

203. Ροδων (rodo:n), the father of Auradzak (see Αυραζακοσ) – Kurd. ro “pour out”, don "melted fat".

204. Ρωξολανοι (ro:ksonaloi), a Sarmatian tribe, according to Strabo and Ptolemy – “white Alans” (Os. ruxs „light”).

205. Sadagarii, tribe on the Danube in alliance with the Alans and Skirs led by Kandak (see Candac), Jordanes – OE. sāda “tape, rope”, gār "a spear".

206. Σαδαιος (sadaios), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – OE. sāda “tape, rope”.

207. Sagaris, the name of a slave (Ovid), sinus Saggarius (possibly Berezansky estuary according to Pliny), σαγαρισ (sagaris), battle ax, Scythian weapons – OE. sacu "war" and earh “arrow”.

208. Σαιος (saios), name back to ethnic name, Bosporus, Struve – Kurd. sayî "clear", Chech. say "deer".

209. Σακδεοσ (sakdeos), Tanais – "demon deer"(Old Os. sag-dew).

210. Sambida (Alanian leader in Gaul, 440) – OE. sam “together”, bīdan “stay, wait, live.”

211. Σαμβιων (sambio:n), the son of Gang, (see Γαγγαιοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. sam “together”, bio “bee”

212. Σαμβουτος (samboutos), the father of Abrag (se Αβροαγοσ) – just like Σαμβιων.

213. Σαναγως (sanagos), the son of Somakh (see Σαυμακωσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. săn "face" and –ak – suffix of nouns and adjectives with a similar meaning to the attribute, that is, “chubby”.

214. Σανδαρζιος (sandarsios), the father of Khoroath (see Χοροαθος) and Khofarn Хофарна (see Χοφαρνος) – OE sand "messenger", eard "fate".

215. σαναπτις οινοποτησ (sanaptis oinopote:s), from Hesychius – combination of Os. сæн and Gr. οινο (both are "wine").

216. Sangibanus, Alanian king of the 5th century in Gaul, according to Jordanes – OE. sengen “burn” and bān “leg, bone”.

217. Σανεια (saneia), female name, Panticapaeum – Kurd. senayî "light, slight".

218. Σανων (sano:n), Panticapaeum – Chuv. săn „face”, ăn "good to be born".

219. σαπερδης (saperde:s),the name of a fish at the Scythians, according to Hesychius of Alexandria, 5th cent. – Chuv. chăpar, Turkm. çeper, Uzb. čipor "motley" and daš "appearance" in many Turkic languages.

220. Σαρακος (sarakos), Tanais – Kurd. serek "leader, chief", similar words can or could exist in many Iranian languages from the common Iranian sar „head”.

221. Σαραζακος (saradzakos), the archon in Olbia, the son of Poseideis? Latyshev – xed. sară "yellow", çaka "linden".

222. Sardi, a Scythian tribe according to Pliny – Chuv. sǎrt "hill".

223. Σαρμαται (sarmatai) – OE sār "sickly, frail, suffering" and mæte "weak, poor, bad," "subordinate, low".

224. Σαρον (saron), name of the area on the Borysthenes River according to Ptolemy – Let. sārņi "mud". Perhaps the name of the marshland.

225. Σαρυκη (saruke:), female name, Panticapaeum – Chuv. Saruka, female name from sară "blond", "beautiful".

226. Σατρακης (satrake:s), the prince of the Scythians living north of Sogdiana according to Arrian – nothing better than Afg. sutra „clean” and kas “face, person” not found.

227. Σαυαγασκος (sauagaskos), Phanagoria – Chuv. savăk “joy”, for the second part of the name may be suitable Chuv. asǎkh "debauchery, lechery"

228. Σαυαγος (sauagaskos), Panticapaeum – Chuv. savăk “joy”.

229. Σαυαιωσος (sauaio:sos), the father of Bagdocauos (see Βαγδοσαυοσ) – OE sāwan "sow", "plant", cultivate", īw "yew". According to ancient beliefs, the yew wreath possessed magical properties.

230. Σαυανων (sauano:n), the son of Khpfrasm (see Χοφρασμοσ), Tanais – Kurd. sêvan „light, bright, blond”.

231. Σαυδαραται (saudaratai), a Sarmatian tribe – according to Abaev “dressed in black” (Os. saw-dar-a-tæ), which corresponds to the name of the Scythian tribe of Melanchleans, which has the same meaning.

232. Σαυμακος (saumakos), the Scythian, leader of the coup in the Bosporus kingdom, 2nd cen. BC, Σωμαχοσ, the son of Sanag (see Σαναγοσ), the strategos and the father of several strategos in Olbia, Latyshev – both names have the same origin and the strange meaning of “morning” (Os. sæwmag) could hardly be assigned to different people. Rather Chuv. sav "to love" need to be considered despite according to fact that Sav is verb component in personal Chuvash names, Chuv. -mak is suffix of nouns from verb stems.

233. Σαυροphoς (saurofos), the father of Pairisal (see Παιρισαλοσ) – Kabard. saur "special leather of high quality" ofa "covered".

234. Σαυρωμαται (sauro:matai) – Chuv. savăr "marmot" and măti "child", what generally means "children of marmot"

235. Σθαζεις instead Σεσαζεισ (sesadzeis), the son of Insadz (see Ινσαζαγοσ) – Kabard. se "knife", sedze "blade of knife".

236. Σειπελαγος (seipelagos), the father of Reomar (see Ρευρομαροσ), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – OE. sīpian ""leak, drip"", lagu "water, flow".

237. Σερεις (sereis), the son of Fandarz (see Φανδαραζοσ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE sear "dry, infertile".

238. Σευραγος (seuragos), Phanagoria – Chuv. sĕvrĕk "spoiled, weak".

239. Σιαγους (siagous), Gorgippia – Ir. *sijo „back” (Kurd. sîyah, Afg. sijo a.o.), but maybe also Kurd. se „dog” and agos „tramp”.

240. Σιαουος (siaouos), Olbia, Knipovich – Ir. *sijo „black”, common Iranian ab/av/ov „water”.

241. Σιαυακος (siauakos), Tanais – Kurd. sîyah „black” and waq „feeling”.

242. Σιμος (simos), the son of Auasis (see Αυασισ) and the brother of Bol (see Βολασ), Panticapeum; Σιμο, Bospor, Struve – Gr. σῑμός "flat-nosed".

243. Σιρανος (siranos), the father of (see Σαμβατας), Tanais, Latyshev – OE sear, siere “dry, thin”.

244. Σιωμαχος (sio:makhos), the father of Chabok (see. Θιαβωγοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. sivĕ "cold", -мах is word-forming suffix.

245. Siraki, a Scythian tribe by Pliny – Chuv. sirek "sensitive".

246. Σκαρτανος (skartanos), сынthe son of Azia (см. Αζιαοσ), a priest in Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. shărt "oath", ăn "consciousness, reason".

247. Σκιλουρος (skilouros), the father of Palak (see Παλακοσ), the king of the Scythian tribe in Crimea – OE. scelian, scellan "separate, divide", ūr "wealth".

248. Σογος (sogos), Gorgippia, Tanais, Panticapeum – Afg., Pers. sag „dog” (similar words are also in the Pamir languages).

249. Σοζιρσαυος (sozirsauos), Tanais – Abaev saw Adyghe impact on the Ossetian name Sozyryqo (Kabard. Sosruqwa a.o.), but does not explain the origin of the name. In Finno-Ugric languages there are similar words meaning "sister" (Fin. sisar, Veps sizar, Mok. sazor, Udm. suzer). For the second part of the word, only the Mok. s'ava "goat" may suit. The Moksha people is usually associated with the Budinoi.

250. Σοζαμον (sozamon), the son of Sturan, Tanais – Kurd. soz "word", eman "compassion, forgiveness".

251. Σορχακος (sorkhakos), Olbia, Vasmer – common Iranian surx/sorx „red”.

252. Σουγδαια (sougdaia), a town in the Crimea, now Sudak, was founded in 212 AD – Os. suğdæg "sacred".

253. Σουσουλων (sousoulo:n), the father of Abroag (see Αβροαγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. săsăl 1. "bran", 2. "bone marrow",ăн "consciousness, reason."

254. Σπαδαγως (spadagos), king of the Sanig tribe in Abkhazia, Σπαδακησ, Olbia, Latyshev, Σπαδινης, king of the Sarmatian tribe of the Aorsi – Ir. *spāda "army" (Os. æfsad, Kurd. (Sorani) spâ). All names are Iranian, but attribution to a particular language is difficult.

255. Σπαρτοκος (spartokos), names of several Bospor kings – Afg. spārtak "vine branch", OE. sparian „protect”, tācen "sign".

256. Σταυακος (stauakos), Tanais – Os. stawæg "glorifying".

257. Στορανη (storane:), the wife of Princeps Ada, Panticapaeum, Latyshev, Στυρακος, Στυρανος, Gorgippia, Στοσαρακος – OE. stōr "big, strong", Ir. stur/stor „great”. It is difficult to find a match for the second part of the names.

258. Στορμαις (stormais), the son of Okhodziak, (см. Οχωζιακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Ir. stur/stor „great” for the first part of the name, Kabard. maise “sharp saber, sharp knife”.

259. Σφαροβαις (spharobais), Panticapeum – „mason, builder” (OE. spær “gypsum, limestone” and býan “build”.

260. Σορακως (sorako:s), Panticapeum – Os. soræg "pursuer", Chuv. сурăх "sheep".

261. Συμφωρος (sumpho:ros), the father of Bagdokh (see Βαγδοχος), Godigas (see Γωδιγασος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος) – Gr. σύμφορος "useful".

262. Σωχουβαζως (so:khoubadzos), Olbia – doubtful for phonetic reasons "dry-handed" (Os. khos "dry", bazuk "hand"), you can take into account Chuv. суха "gills" and puç „head”.

263. Ταρουλον (taroulon) – the name is Turkic, the second part of the word means “son” (Karach. ulan a.o. similar).

264. Τασιος (tasios), the leader of the Roxolani at the end of the 2nd cent. BC – OE tæsan "wound".

265. Τουμβαγος, Olbia, Knipovich – Old Turkic tom "cold", baqa "frog".

266. Τιργαταω (tirgatao:), female name, Polyaenus – "tradeswoman" (Let. tirgotājs "marketeer").

267. Φαδιαροαζως (phadiaroadzos), the son of Publius, Tanais, Latyshev; Φαδιναμος, Tanais – OE. fadian „lead”, Os. fadian "trace", "offspring".

268. Φαζιναμος (phadzinamos), Tanais – OE. fācian “seek, demand, achieve” and nama "name". Perhaps the same as Φαδιναμοσ.

269. Φαλδαρανος (phaldaranos), the son of Apollonium, Tanais, Knipovich – OE feld “field, plain” and earn “eagle” (“steppe eagle”).

270. Φανδαραζος (phandardzos), the father of Sereis (см. Σερεισ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE. fandian “try, experience” and racian "dominate, lead".

271. Φαραδος (pharados), Olbia? – Os. fe-rad “received joy”.

272. Φαρζηος (Phardze:os), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi, Φαρζοιος, the Sarmatian king in Crimea, protector of Olbia; Φαρζηοσ, the father of Khorardz, Knipovich – Os. færzew "hospitable".

273. Φηδανακος (phe:danokos), Tanais – OE. fadian „lead” and naca "boat, ship".

274. Φιδανυος (phidanuos), Φιδας Tanais, Panticapeum – ос. fidæ "father", fidon "paternal".

275. Φλειμναγος (phleimnagos), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. fliema “fugitive” and nǽgan "approach, attack."

276. Φλιανος (phlianos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. fleon "run, dodge, avoid."

277. Φοδακος (phodakos), Tanais, Phanagoria – Os. fudag"naughty".

278. Φορηρανος (fore:ranos), the son of Evio, Tanais, Latyshev – OE feorr “distant, remote” or feorh "soul, spirit, personality" and earn "eagle".

279. Φοριαυος (phoriauos), the son of Antisten, Tanais, latyshev – at OE. fōr “trip, way” and eawan “show, open”, the name may mean “conductor”.

280. Φοσακος (phosakos), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. fūs “striving forward” and āc 1. “oak”, 2. “ship of oak”.

281. Φουρτας (phourtas), Tanais – Os. furt „son”.

282. Φυσκη (phuske:), a coastal town east of the mouth of the Dniester according to Ptolemy – Abaev suggests that now there is a small village “Dry Liman” located on this place and explains the name of the city from Os. xusk "dry, barren land". This word is present in all Iranian languages, but most likely the town was named for the Roman commander Cornelius Fusk, who fought with the Dacians near these places. Lat.fuscuc "dark".

283. Χανακης (khanake:s), Panticapeum – common Turkic qonaq “guest, friend”, чув. khăna).

284. Χαραξ (kharaks), the name of the area in the Crimea according to Ptolemy – derived from Gr. χαρα "joy". (cf. χαριξομαι “bring joy, pleasure”

285. Χαραξενος (kharaksenos), the son of Abragos (see Αβροαγοσ), the strategos in Olbia; Χαραξος, the son of Farnak, Tanais, Latyshev – thr name is Greek: χαρα "joy", ξενος "alien".

286. Χαρακστος (kharakstos), the son of Omrasmak (см. Ομρασμακοσ), Tamais, Latyshev – OE. hār "old", āx "ax", -t is epithesis (cf. Ger. Axt "ax").

287. Χαχας, the son of Gorgos (see Γοργοσασ)- Chech. khēkhō "watchman", khьakha 1. "to languish," 2. "to doom".

288. Χοαργαρος (khoargaros), Tanais – Chech. khoar is a verbal noun from khoa "comprise", gara "kin, generation".

289. Χοαροφαδιος (khoarophadios), Tanais – Kurd. xaver/xewer “sun”, feda „victim”, fede "benefit".

290. Χοζανια (khodzania), female name, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Kabard. khuedzhyn "spin".

291. Χοδαινος (khodainos) – “god's faith” (Kurd. xuda „god” and îna „faith”).

292. Χοδεκιος (khodekios), Gorgippia – Os. xodæg "funny".

293. Χομενος (khomenos), the son of Athenodor (Tanais) – OE. hām “house” and an, æn „alone, lonely”.

294. Χοροαθος (khoroathos), Tanais, the son of Sandzar (see Σανδαρζιος), Tanais – OE heoru "sword", æđan "to swear".


At right: Plate B from Tanais

220 AD. Size: height 1053, width 710 mm. It is stored in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
(Photo from Wikipedia)
The name of Khoroat is highlighted in the picture.


295. Χοροξαδος (khoroksathos), Tanais – OE. heoru "sword", sceađ "sheath".

296. Χορσομανος (khorsomanos) or Χορσαμαντις, a Massaget, spear-bearer of Belisarius, VI century, Procopius of Kessaria – OE. hors "horse", mann "man".

297. Χοαροσαζος (khoarsadzos), the father of Abrag (see Αβροαγος), Tanais, Χουαρσαζος, Olbia – Kabard. khъuer "parable" sedze "blade of knife".

298. Χουναρος (khounaros), Olbia, Vasmer – Kurd. xov "savage" and nêr "male".

299. Χοφρασμος (khophrasmos), Tanais – Kurd. xof „fear” and resm „appearance”.

300. Χωδαρζος (kho:dardzos), the son of Fardz (see Φαρζοιοσ), the strategos in Olbia – Os. xwæd-arc „"equipped with a spear"”.

301. Χωδονακος (kho:danakos), Tanais – possibly “worthy of a laugh” (Os. xodujnag) and "master" (Kurd. xudan + reinforcing suffix -ak)

302. Χωνδιακος (khondiakos), Feodosia – “worthy of an invitation” (ос. xundiak). Above, considering the name Αμαρδιακοσ, we came to the conclusion that it is of Greek origin. This name also contains Gr. διακοσ "servant". Gr. χων является производным от χεω "лить".

303. Ψευδαρτακη, the name of the sacred place in Scythia, VI century – Gr. ψευδης "false", Αρτακη"terrain on the shores of the Sea of Marmara".