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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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Sarmatian Onomasticon

Representative sample






In the process of studying ethnogenetic processes using the graphic-analytical method, the idea arose of creating a Sarmatian onomasticon to confirm and clarify the results of these studies on the ethnic composition of the population of the Northern Black Sea region. The study and systematization of various substrate onomastics recorded in historical documents and monuments are practically impossible without reliable knowledge about the people who inhabited a particular area at different times. This is especially important when historical information is scarce and contradictory. We have this case for the Scythian-Sarmatian time over a vast area including the entire territory of Ukraine and Moldova, the southern part of European Russia, and, partially, Hungary and Romania. This space corresponds to the broad understanding of Great Scythia, or Scytho-Sarmatia, which can be found among ancient historians. The rich history of this country and its ethnic composition are of great interest to scientists and naturally, they have assumptions that are sought for scientific confirmation. Without yet having sufficient information, generally accepted authorities confirmed in the scientific world the opinion that the language of the population of Scytho-Sarmatia was exclusively Iranian, which was supposedly the ancestor of modern Ossetian.

Such confidence not only significantly reduced the search area for relevant information, but also directed the efforts of researchers to restore the “Scythian-Sarmatian language” as one of the Iranian ones. Many researchers, such as V.I. Abaev, V.P. Petrov, Janos Harmatta, Augusti Alemany selected from the available materials data in support of this erroneous idea and compiled their own lists of Scythian-Sarmatian names and realities, decipherable mainly on the basis of the Ossetian language with the addition of ancient Iranian languages, without sufficient attention their fundamental principle. These lists appear in various forms in the works of subsequent researchers, and now it is not always possible to establish the original source of individual glosses, although the material presented in the works of V.V. Latyshev (LATYSHEV BASILIUS. 1885-1901) is mainly used. Currently, based on this material, a database of inscriptions from the Northern Black Sea region is being created as part of a project under the patronage of the International Union of Academies and represents a dynamic digital resource. Three volumes of inscriptions in Russian were published on the website Inskriptions of the Northern Black Sea. Linguistic analysis of all this material is very difficult and this work is beyond the power of one person, so we can only talk about extracting a representative sample from it. Its compilation showed that all available material should be previously, if possible, structured according to a chronological principle. As a result, the idea arose of compiling separate samples of the Scythian and Sarmatian times, the border between which was taken at the beginning of the 3rd century BC, which is associated with the invasion of the Sarmatians.

Having reliable data on the presence in Scytho-Sammatia, in addition to Iranian tribes, also of ancient Bulgars, Anglo-Saxons and the ancestors of modern Hungarians, Balts and some North Caucasian peoples, the Ossetian, Kurdish, Chuvash, Old English, Chechen, Kabardian, Hungarian, and Lithuanian languages were mainly used to decipher the Scythian-Sarmatian glosses. In some cases, the Greek, Latin, and Armenian origin of the words used for the representative selection was obvious. For the sake of objectivity, words of Greek and Latin origin, as well as those deciphered using several languages, were discarded from consideration. As a result, it turned out that with more or less reliable decoding of the gloss using only one language, 348 words out of several hundred considered were included in the representative sample. At the same time, the names of relatives were deciphered primarily using one language, which increased the reliability of the decodings. If this cannot be done, the falsity of some decipherments seems likely, although popular names may be in circulation throughout Great Scythia, regardless of origin, they could be considered prestigious, and more fashionable than others. Numerous archaeological sites with texts in Greek were left by residents of the Black Sea-Azov coast. They contain information about the socio-economic relations and cultural life of Greek cities and the names of the most active part of their population. Only occasionally can one find in them non-Greek names of aborigines from among the tribal elite or the trade and economic class who became involved in the life of the colonies. As a result, the data used can only speak about the ethnic composition of the ruling elite, since some tribes occupied a leading position in tribal unions. The ethnic diversity of the population of Scytho-Sarmatia intensified even more after the arrival of the Goths and the subsequent invasion of the Huns, which led to the Great Migration of Peoples. All this should be kept in mind when considering the analysis data.

The sampling was based on the onomasticon of V.P. Petrov (PETROV V.P. 1968: 118-143) and “Dictionary of Scythian words by Abaev (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 277 – 315). Clarification of the spelling of names, family relationships between their bearers, and addition of new data were carried out based on the works of V.V. Latyshev (LATYSHEV BASILIUS. 1885-1901), F. Justi (JUSTI FEDINANS. 1895), the corpus of Bosporan inscriptions (STRUVE V.V. (ED.) 1965), the corpus of names from Olbia (KNIPOVICH T.N. Knipovich, LEVI E.I. 1968), the above-mentioned database on inscriptions of the Northern Black Sea region and less systematically on other works. Where necessary, the source was indicated.

Marble slab with scenes of sacrifice and a meal from Olbia

The first half of the 2nd century BC. Size: height 331-337, width 495 mm.
(Ibid, Table XXXVII)

Translation of the text on the slab: Being bread inspectors Theocles, son of Tharsiadam, Demetrius, son of Fokrit, Athenius, son of Konon, Nevtim, son of Heroksen, with Secretary Athenodor, son of Demagoras, this image was dedicated to the Hero of the Hearing.

The calculation showed that the number of glosses of Iranian origin constituted 28% of the whole sample. It is significant that more than half of them are deciphered using the Kurdish language. The share of Turkic glosses, of which the overwhelming majority are Bulgarian, makes up one-quarter of the sample. One-fifth of the list consists of Old English glosses. The share of Adyghe, explained in the Kabardian language, accounts for a little more than 10% and 7% are Chechen, approximately the same 5% are accounted for by Hungarian and Baltic. Two glosses are deciphered using the Armenian language and one – in the languages of the Mordovian group. This result convincingly testifies to the multinationality of Great Scythia in Sarmatian times and Iranians were far from prevailing in it, which is also confirmed by toponymy, although the correlation between toponymy and anthroponymy is not clearly expressed.

Due to the ambiguity of the decoding, significant changes and additions are constantly being made to the sample, so when using it, the most recent version should be used. However, targeted work in this direction continues and there is hope for some success. Below is the status of the sample as of September 2023

Iranian Names

Ossetian names are in dark green, Kurdish in blue.

At left: Plate A from Tanais

Material: marble, approx. 175-211 AD. Size: height 1920, width 730 mm. It is stored in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
(Photo from Wikipedia)

1. Αβαβος (ababos), the father of Orontes (see Ορόντης). Olbia, Latyshev – Kurd. ebaboz “a thief” is suitable for anthroponimia well. F. Justi associates the name of Orontes with Av. aũrvaňd "hero" (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895: 235-236).

2. Αγροι (aγroi) according to Strabo, some tribe near Lake Maeotis – Harmatta explains it as "the first" according to Old. Ir. agra (HARMATTA J. 1970).

3. Αμαιακος (amaiakos), Tanais – "builder" (Oc. amajun „to build”, amajæg „builder”).

4. Anbazuk (a ruler on the Northern Caucasus, 1-2 cen. AD) – Os bazuk „arm, shoulder”.

5. Αργοδας (arγodas), Panticapaeum, Αργωδα (argo:da), a city in Chersonesos Taurica – Os. arğaun ( arğud participle) „to sanctify”.

6. Αρδαβδα (ardabda) or Αβδαρδα (abdarba), the Alanian or Taurian name of the town of Theodosia, translated by an unknown Greek author as "the city of seven gods" – Os. ard “oath” (originally a deity sworn by), avd “seven”.

7. Αρδοναγαρος (ardonaγaros), Tanais, the father of Ithiochakos – Kurd. ard, "land", noqar "quarrel".

8. Αριι (arii), a Sarmatian tribe – the tribe name originates from the self-designation of the Indo-Iranian tribes. F. Justi cites a number of personal names with the basis of αρια. The word is Iranian.

9. Ασπανδανος (aspandavos), the son of Leiman (see Λειμανος). Tanais, Latyshev – Os. ǣfsǣ „mare”, andan "steel";

10. Αὕασις (awasis), the father of Sim (see Σιμο) and Bolos (see Βολασ). Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Kurd. avaš "calm", avaz "voice, sound".

11. Αφθειμακος (aphtheimakos), Tanais – Os. ævdæimag „seventh”.

12. Βαιορασπος (baioraspos), Tanais – Kurd. beyar “hill, mountain pasture” and hespajo “horse driver, herder” related semantically. Both words have no correspondence in other Iranian languages.

13. Βαιορμαιος (baiornaios), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Papias – Kurd. beyar “hill, mountain pasture”, meywe „fruit”.

14. Βαστακou (bastakou), the father of Makarion, Tanais, Β[ασ]τακou, Kerch, the father of Demostrat. Latyshev – Os. bæstag „local, countryman”.

15. Βιστης (biste:s), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Kurd. bistî „stem” or bista „trusting” or bista „mistress”.

16. Βολας (bolas), the son of Awas (see Αὕασις) – Kurd. bol “enough, much”.

17. Βορασπος (boraspo:s), the archon in Tanais, Latyshev – common Ir. bor/bur „brown, yellow” and. aspa „horse”.

18. Δανδαριοι (dandarioi), the name of the people in the lower part of the Kuban River and in Meotia, Strabo – the lower part of the Kuban lies between the Azov and Black Seas, the Kurd. dan "inside" and derya/darya „sea” are well suited to explain the name of the people, "surrounded by the sea".

19. Διαγορας (diagoras), the son of Makar. Kerch, Latyshev – Kurd. dia “blessing”, gor “grave, tomb”;

20 Διζα (didza), Kerch, the Thracian squad leader. Latyshev – Kurd. diz “a thief”;

21. Εργινο (ergino). Taman, CBI – Kurd. erk “job, matter” and îna “faith”;

22. Ζαζζουσ (dzadzdzous), 1. the son of Teimotheos. Anapa, Latyshev. 2. the father of Myriak. JUSTI – Kurd. zaz, zazan a member of the Kurdish tribe Zazan, "swift";

23. Ζαντικος (dzantikos), the Prince of the Iazyges – Kurd. zan "mage", tîk "high", "direct".

24. Ζαρινα (dzarina), the queen of the Saka, Ctesias – common Iranian zarin „gold”.

25. Ζειλασ (dzeilas). Kerch. Latyshev – Kurd. zeyle (zehle) “pester”.

26. Ζωρσανος (dzo:rsanos), the son of Neikerat (see Νεικηράτου), Olbia. LBIA, V I, 21 – Kurd. zor “strength, force”, sena "praise";

27. Ιασανδανακος (iasandanakos), the son of Yavak (see. Ιαυακος), Tanais – Kurd. yasan "sad", dên “look” —ek – an article.

28. Ιαυακος (iauakos), the father of Yasandak (see. Ιασανδανακος ), Tanais – Kurd. yavaș „calm, quiet”.

29. Κοσου (kosou), the father of Pairsal (see. Παιρισαλοσ), Kerch – Kurd. kose „mustacheless man”.

30. Λαζενοσ (ladzenos), Kerch. Latyshev – Kurd. lezandin “to hurry”;

31. Λειμανος (leimanos), 1. the son of Phidas (see Πιδασ), the father of Aspandan (see Ασπανδανος), Tanais. 2. the son of Phidas, the grandson of Phidas? Pantexapeum Latyshev – Os. limæn „friend”.

32. Μαδα (mada), female name, Vasmer – Os. madæ „mother” (similar words are present in other Iranian languages).

33. Μαιτωνιον (maito:nion), по Птолемею, город на ьерегу Днестра (Тираса) – очевидно, имя города происходит от распространенного ир. majdan „место, площадь”.

34. Μαμμαρος (mammaros), Пантикапей. Фасмер – курд. mam "родственник", mar "женитьба".

35 Μησακου (me:sakou), отец Ст?сарака (см. Στ?σαρακος). Танаис, Латышев – курд. maşoq “возлюбленный”.

36. Μιθραδατης (mithradate:s), имя нескольких правителей Боспорского царства – курд.. midîr “начальник, управляющий” , dad “закон”, “справедливость". Поскольку такое имя носили многие правители Малой Азии, то это могло быть не имя, а царский титул, означающий "законный правитель".

37. Μουγισαγος (mouγisaγos), the son of Asan (see Ασανος), Olbia, Latyshev – Os. mugǽ "semen" and sag "deer".

38. Ναβαζος (nabadzos), 1. the son of Numenios, the strategos in Olbia; 2. the son of Cimbros, Tanais, Latyshev – Kurd. nab "clean, pure" and aza "free", Kurdish female name Nabat existed (JUSTI FERDINAND, 1895: 218).

39. Ναμγηνος (namγe:nos), the son of Neikodrom, the strategos in Olbia, Latyshev – “eminent” (Os. nomgin from nom „name”).

40. Ναρακον στομα (Narakon stoma), according to ancient historians, one of the branches of the Danube Delta, is well-suited to the narrow outfall interpretation when combined Os. naræg „narrow” and Gr. στομα "mouth, throat".

41. Νεικηράτου (neike:ratou), the father of Zorsan (see Ζωρσανος), Olbia. LBIA, V. i, 21 – Kurd. ney "reeds", kêr "knife".

42. Νουμηνιος (noum:rnioc), the son of Sparafotos (see Σπαροφοτος), Panticapeum, Latyshev – Kurd. "new", menî "meaning".

43. Ξησσαγαρος (kse:ssagaros), the father of the strategos Demetrios, Olbia – Kurd. çes „taste", sāγar „bowl, goblet”.

44. Ολθακος (olthakos), according to Plutarch, the ruler of the Dandarian tribe (see Δανδαριοι) – Kurd. ol "faith, religion" and çak "kind, merciful".

45. Ουαρα (ouara) Ουαροσ, Tanais – no doubt this is an Iranian word meaning “tramp” (Afg. avāra, Tal. awərə, Kurd. êpero a.o.).

46. Ουαστοβαλος (ouastobalos) – Tal. ovašto „to hang” and bol „arm, wing”.

47. Παιρισαδης (pairisade:s), about ten names of different persons from Tanais to Thrace – Kurd. peyar ”infantryman”, sed “a hundred”;

48. Παιρισαλοσ (pairsalos), the son of Saurof, the father of Reusinal (see Ρευσιναλος), Kerch, the son of Pairsal, the son of Kosus (see Κοσου), Kerch, the father of Diogen, Tiritaka, and others in Kerch and elsewhere, Παιρισαλουσ (paisalous), the son of Taroul, Kerch – Kurd. peyar ”foot warrior”, sed “a hundred”. The transition from d to l in Iranian languages is natural (EDEDELMAN D.I. 2003: 371).

49. Πανίους (panious), Olbia. LBIA, V I, 22 – Kurd. pene ”secret”;

50. Παρσπανακος (parspanakos), Olbia? – Os. fars „side”, fæjnæg „board”.

51. Πατειρος (pateiros), the son of Theofil, Feodosia. Latyshev, Πατερας (paterαs), Taman. Latyshev, Πατεριου (paterou), Kerch. Latyshev – Kurd. (Old Ir. * pad- “foot”, Kurd êrîş „footstep”.

52. Πηρακος (pe:rakos), Olbia? – Os. piræg “wool carder”.

53. Πιδας (pidas) 1. Φιδασ, the father of Leman (see Λειμανοσ), Tanais. 2. Πιδασ, the grandson of Fidas, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Os. fyd, fidæ „father”.

54. Ραδαμασις (radamasis), Ραδαμειστοσ (radameistos), Ραδαμσαδισ (radamsadis), Ραδαμψσων (radampso:n) a.o. – Old Iranian *fratama „first” is proposed to explain these and similar names. (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895, 257). However, referring it to any modern Iranian language is not possible.

55. Rasparaganus, the king of Roxolania and Sarmatia, according to the inscription of the times of the emperor Hadrian – Av. frasperegha "offspring" (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895, 259) but a match to it in any modern Iranian language is not found.

56. Ρησκουπορις (re:skouporis), names of several rulers of the Bosporan kingdom – Kurd. rȇşî "beard", por "hair".

57. Ρευσιναλος (reusinalos), the son of Pairsal (see Παιρισαλοσ), the grandson of Saurof (see Σαυροφος), Pantucapeum, Latyshev – Kurd. rev "running", sînayî "track", "path".

58. Ροιμηταλκου (roume:talkou), Bosporan king – Kurd. rûmet “cheek” and elqe “circle”;

59. Ρωξολανοι (ro:ksonaloi), a Sarmatian tribe, according to Strabo and Ptolemy – “white Alans” (Os. ruxs „light”).

60. Σακδεοσ (sakdeos), Tanais – "demon deer"(Old Os. sag-dew).

61. Σαμβιων (shambio:n), the father of Nimfagor. Anapa, Latyshev – Kurd. sam ”impudent, arrogant” and bîyanî “alien, stranger, foreigner”;

62. Σαμβατιωνος (shambio:n), the son of Modiy, Tanais, Latyshev and other names found in Anapa, Krasnodar, Tanais – Kurd. sam ”impudent, arrogant” and batûyan “interior, inside”;

63. Σανεια (saneia), female name, Panticapaeum – Kurd. senayî "light, slight".

64. Σαρακος (sarakos), Tanais – Kurd. serek "leader, chief", similar words can or could exist in many Iranian languages from the common Iranian sar „head”.

65. Σατρακης (satrake:s), the prince of the Scythians living north of Sogdiana according to Arrian – nothing better than Afg. sutra „clean” and kas “face, person” not found.

66. Σαυανων (sauano:n), the son of Khofrasm (see Χοφρασμοσ), Tanais – Kurd. sêvan „light, bright, blond”.

67. Σαυροματης (sauromate:s), names of several rulers of the Bosporan kingdom – Kurd. sawîr "fear", mat "stunned, amazed".

68. Σαυροφος (saurofos), the father of Pairisal (see Παιρισαλοσ) – Kurd. sava "beast" ref "squad, group".

69. Σαυδαραται (saudaratai), a Sarmatian tribe – according to Abaev, “dressed in black” (Os. saw-dar-a-tæ), which corresponds to the name of the Scythian tribe Melanchlaeni, which has the same meaning.

70. Σεαυαγος (seauagos). Kerch, Latyshev – Kurd. sewaq “essence”.

71. Σειταλκυσ (seitalkus), the son of Sitalk. Kerch, Shkorpil – Kurd. sitavk "umbrella".

72. Σερεισ (series), the son of Fandara (see Φανδαραζος). Anapa, Clarke – Kurd. serî "swift".

73. Σευθου (seuthou). Tanais, Latyshev – Kurd. sewt “loud” or sewz “green”;

74. Σιαγους (siagous), Gorgippia – Ir. *sijo „back” (Kurd. sîyah, Afg. sijo a.o.).

75. Σιαουος (siaouos), Olbia, Knipovich –Ir. *sijo „black”, Common Ir. ab/av/ov „water”.

76. Σιαυακος (siauakos), Tanais – Kurd. sîyah „black” and waq „feeling”.

77. Σιμο (simo), the son of Avas (see Αὕασις) – Kurd. sîm "silver".

78. Σοζαμον (sodzamon), the son of Sturan (see Στυρανου), Tanais, Latyshev – Kurd. soz "word", eman "pity, compassion".

79. Σορχακος (sorkhakos), Olbia, Vasmer – Common Ir surx/sorx „red”.

80. Σουγδαια (souγdaia), a town in the Crimea, now Sudak, was founded in 212 AD – Os. suğdæg "sacred".

81. Σπαδαγως (spadaγo:s), king of the Sanig tribe in Abkhazia, Σπαδακησ, Olbia, Latyshev, Σπαδινης, king of the Sarmatian tribe of the Aorsi – Ir. *spāda "army" (Os. æfsad, Kurd. (Sorani) spâ). All names are Iranian, but attribution to a particular language is difficult.

82. Σπαροφοτος (sparofotos), the father of Numenios (see Νουμηνιος), Panticapeum, Latyshev – Kurd. spar "order", fote "death" .

83. Σπαρτοκος (spartokos), names of several rulers of the Bosporan kingdom – Kurd. spar "order", toqe "royal decree", spartin "entrust".

84. Σταυακος (stauakos), Tanais – Os. stawæg "glorifying".

85. Στ?σαρακος (st?sarakoς), the son of Mesak (see Μησακου). Tanais, Latyshev – Kurd. serek "head, leader". Cf. Σαρακος.

86. Στυρακοσ (sturakos). Anapa? Latyshev – Kurd. stûr, Osset. styr, sutur and other Iranian “great, strong, thick”;

87. Στυρανου (sturanos), the father of Sozomen (see Σοζαμον) – see previous;

88. Ταρουλου (taroulou), Apollonia Pontica – Kurd. tarî "dark" , law “son”.

89. Φανδαραζος (fandaradzos), the father of Seriy (see Σερεισ). Anapa, Clarce – Kurd. fendar "cunning".

90. Φαρζηος (phardze:os), the father of Khodardz (see Χωδαρζος), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi; Φαρζοιος, the Sarmatian king in Crimea, protector of Olbia – Os. færzew "hospitable".

91. Φιδανυος (phidanuos), Φιδας Tanais, Panticapeum – Os. fidæ "father", fidon "paternal".

92. Φοδακος (phodakos), Tanais, Phanagoria – Os. fudag „naughty, imp”.

93. Φουρτας (phourtas), Tanais – Os. furt „son”.

94. Χοαροφαδιος (khoarophadios), Tanais – Kurd. xaver/xewer “sun”, feda „victim”, fede "benefit".

95. Χοδεκιος (khodekios), Gorgippia – Os. xodæg "funny".

96. Χουναρος (khounaros), Olbia, Vasmer – Kurd. xov "savage" and nêr "male".

97. Χοφρασμος (khophrasmos), Tanais – Kurd. xof „fear” and resm „appearance”.

98. Χωδαρζος (kho:dardzos), the son of Fardz (see Φαρζοιοσ), the strategos in Olbia – Os. xwæd-arc "equipped with a spear"”.

99. Χωδονακος (kho:danakos), Tanais – possibly “worthy of a laugh” (Os. xodujnag) and "master" (Kurd. xudan + reinforcing suffix -ak)

Turkic Names

1. Αζιαγος (adziagos), Olvia, Αζιαiος (aziaios), the father of Skartanoc (see Σκαρτανοσ), Αζιας, the father of Papas (see Παπασ) – Chuv. aça "father". ača “a child” and akăš “a swan”.

2. Αμαδοκοι (amadokoi), according to Ptolemy some Sarmatian tribe, and on his map, there are three more such toponyms – Chuv. mătăk 1. "short" 2. "grumpy, quarrelsome"; -a – a prothetic vowel.

3. Αμιζωκες (amidzo:kes), a Schythian, the friend of Dandamis (see Δανδαμις). Lucian – Chuv. ami "friend", çăk "bail, surety"

4. Ανδανακος (andavakos), the son of Khodziak (see Χοζιακος). Tanais, Latyshev, 220 AD – Chuv. ant "oath", năkă "hard, strong".

5. Αραβατης (arabate:s), Alanian hireling serving Emperor Issak I Komnenos – Turk arabačy "a driver".

6. Αργουναγος (argounagos), the son of Karaxtos (see Καραξτος), the father Karaxtos, Kainoksart (see Καινοξαρθος) – Chuv. arkan “to break” and aka “tillage”.

7. Αρδαγδακοσ (ardagdakos), the son of Poplios (see Ποπλιου) – Chuv. artak “bliss”, “joy”, "well-being" tăkăs "dense".

8. Ασανος, (asanos), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Chuv. ăsan "black grouse".

9. Ασφωρουγος, (aspho:rougos), the son of Karakst (see Καραξτος) – Chuv. as "mind", purak "box".

10. Αταμαζας (atamadzas), the son of Pap (see Παπασ), Gorgippia, the son of Kars (see. Καρσασ), an inscription in Tanais – Chuv. etem “man” and ǎça 1. “male”, 2. “thunder and lightning”. The name of Pap means thunder.

11. Ατασας (atasas), Tanais – Chuv. ataslan "to knot, mat" (-lan- verbal suffix of noun).

12. Αυασισ (auasis), the spouse of Itia (see Ιτιη) and the father of Sim (see Σιμοσ ) and Bol (see. Βολασ), Panticapaeum – Chuv. ăvăs 1. "wax", 2. "aspen".

13. Αττακουα (attakoua), Attakous, the father of Skodz (see Σκοζοσ). Anapa, Latyshev – Chuv. atte „father”, khavas "joy".

14. Babai, the Sarmatian king – Chuv. papay „thunder”.

15. Βολασ (bolas), the son of Auasis (see. Αυασισ) and the brother of Sim (see Σιμοσ) – Chuv. păl "flue, ventpipe".

16. Δαδαγος (dadagos), the son of Kuzaios (see Κουζαιος), the strategos in Olbia – Chuv. tutăx “rusty“; other Turkic have similar words meaning “bustard” (Tat düdäk, Kaz duadaq etc).

17. Δανδαξαρθος (dandaksarthos). This name is given by Abaev, referring him to Berezan without indicating the source – Chuv. šărt “oath”. The root ξαρθ is often fixed in epigraphics in the North Pontic region. Kurd. şert ”agreement” as borrowed from Arabic. The first part of the word may correspond to Chuv. tăn "mind", tu "to do". Compare Διδυμοξαρθοσ.

18. Διδυμοξαρθοσ (didumoksarthos), the son of Xodainos (see Χoδαινoσ), the archon in Tanais, 188 AD. Latyshev – Chuv. tytăm “control, management” and šărt “oath”. Although such word is also in Arabic (šart „condition”). Compare Δανδαξαρθον.

19. Δοσυμοξαρτος (dosumoksartos), the father of Nibloboros (see Νιβλοβωροσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. tăsăm “continuous”, and šart “oath”.

20. Δουαραγος (douaragos), Berezan island – since there are salt deposits on the island and it has been mined since ancient times, it’s best to explain the name by Chuv. tǎvar „salt”.

21. Δουπτουνος (douptounou), Kerch, a Bosporan king. Latyshev – Chuv. tuptav “forging”.

22. Δηλοπτιχου (da:loptikhou), the father of Tisiy (see Τεισιας), Panticapaeum, the 4th century BC. Latyshev – Chuv. tălăp “stature” and tixa “a foal”;

23. Δυνατων (dunato:n), Kerch, Latyshev – Chuv. tuna “stem, stalk”, tăn “mind, reason” or chăn “truth”;

24. Δυρπαναισ (durpanais), a strategos in Olbia – Chuv. tărpa “flue, pipe”, nay “pan-pipe”;.

25. Εισγουδιου (eisgoudiou). Kerch, Latyshev – Chuv. yěs “copper” and kut “basis”. Scythian?;

26. Ζαλζου (dzaldzou). Anapa, Latyshev – Chuv. çulçă “leaf”;.

27. Ζαρανδοσ (dzarandoς), the father of Mardavos (see Μαρδαυοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. çuran „on foot, dismounted”, tus „friend”.

28. Ζουροζισ (dzourodzis), the father of Purthak (see Πουρθακης). Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. çavraçil “vortex, whirlwind”;

29. Ζουλεμησ (dzoulemes). LBIA. V. I, 178 – Chuv. çülevěç “a lynx”;

30. Ζουρη (dzoure:). LBIA. V.I, 2 – Chuv. çavăr “to twist, turn”.

31. Ζωρθτινης (dzo:rthtane:s), the son of Phasinam (?), the 3rd century AD, Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. çărttan “pike (a fish kind)”;

32. Ηρακας (e:rakas), Panticapaeum, the name of the cief translator of the Alans, the beginning of the III century (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 281) – Chuv. erekh „wine” and ăs “to scoop” (“a butler”).

33. Θιαβωγος (thiabo:gos), the son of Siomakh (see Σιωμαχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. chapak "roach, dace".

34. Ιαφαγος (iaphagos), Olbia, Vasmer – Gag. jafak „horse”.

35. Ιραυαδις (irauadis), Tanais, Knipovich – Chuv. ir „morning”, avăt „sing, warble”.

36. Ιρβις (irbis), Tanais – Turkic. irbiz “lynx, leopard”.

37. Ιργανος (irγanos), Tanais, Knipovich – Chuv. yrkhan „thin, meager”.

38. Itaxes, Alan leader in the 8th century, Agustí Alemany – Chuv. iytă açi "male dog".

39. Ιτιη(itie:), a wife of Avas (see Αυασις) – Chuv. yită “dog”.

40. Καινοξαρθος (kainoksarthos), the son of Argouanag (see Αργουαναγος), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously the "broken oath" (Chuv. kainǎ "ripped apart, dismissed", shărt „oath”).

41. Καραξτος (karakstos), the son of Argouanag (see Αργουαναγος), the father of Aspho:rug (see Ασφωρουγος) – Chuv. kărăcha „skinny, lean” and tus "friend".

42. Καραστος (karastos), the son of Sarat, the princeps in Olbia. Latyshev – like Καραξτος.

43. Καρζοαζοn (kardzoadzon) – Chuv. xurçă “steel” and uçă “key”;

44. Καρσας (karsas), the father of Atamaz (see Αταμαζασ ), Tanais – Chuv. kărs „harsh, sharp”.

45. Κουζαιος (koudzaios), Olbia, ? – Chuv. kuç, Tat. küz and similar „eye”, common Turkic aj „moon”.

46. Λυνγιον (lungion), Kerch, Latyshev – Chuv. lănk(a) “full” and yun "blood" or yün “force, energy”;

47. Μαδακος (madakos), the son of Manestratos, Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. mătăk „short”.

48. Μαλδαγος (maldagos), Phanagoria, Latyshev – Chuv. mul „property” and tăkă „prosperous”.

49. Μαρδαυος (mardauos), the son of Zarandos (see Ζαρανδοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. marta "beehive", ăvăs "wax, honeycomb".

50. Μηtακος (me:takos), the son of Purtak (see Πουρθακης), the strategos in Olbia. Latyshev – Chuv. mĕtak “a ram's leg joint bone used for playing”;

51. Μοκκον (mokkon), the son of Dionis/ Kerch. Latyshev – Chuv. măkăn' ”poppy”;

52. Νιβλοβωροσ (niblobo:ros), the father of Dosumoksart (see Δοσυμοξαρτοσ), Tanais. Latyshev – Chuv. nieple “no manner of”, părăs "beam";

53. Νικιου (nikiou), the father of Sisouli (see Σισουλι). Anapa. Latyshev – Chuv. nikĕs “basis”;

54. Ξαρθανος (ksarthanos), Olbia, Latyshev – obviously the same as Σκαρτανοσ – Turkic čortan/šortan „pike, luce” (Chuv. çărttan).

55. Ουαρζβαλακος (ouardzbalakos). Tanais, ABAYEV – Chuv. vărç “to war” and pylak ”pleasure”. Cf. Παλακοσ.

56. Ουταφαρνης (outapharne:s), Ουαταφαρνησ, "deity", inscription on an amulet from the Kuban region – Chuv.vută „male and female water spirits”, parne “gift”. The amulet may have the meaning of protection from the water element.

57. Παιρισαλος (pairisalos), the son of Saurof (see Σαυροφοσ) and the father of Revsinal (see Ρευσιναλοσ), Pantecapeum – Chuv. payǎr "proper", sulǎ "ferry, transportation".

58. Παλακοσ (palakou), Scythian king in the Crimea, the son of Sciluros, the 1st cen. BC – Chuv. pulă (earlier pulak) “a fish” or pulăx “fecundity”; see also Ουαρζβαλακοσ.

59. Παπας (papas), the son of Azis (see Αζισ), Gorgippia – Chuv. papay "thunder".

60. Ποπλιου (popliou), the father of Abdarakos (see Αρδαγδακοσ), Tanais. Latyshev – Chuv. puple "to interpret, speak".

61. Πορατα (porata), the Prut River in Scythian, Greek name Πιρητοσ – In Chuvashia there is a river Parat , the left tributary of the Volga whose name can go back to the disappeared in the Chuvash language *parat “ravine” (KORNILOV G.E. 1987: 54).

62. Πουρθαιος (pourthaios), the archon in Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. pavartla "to scold" or păvărt “press, squeeze out”;

63. Πουρθακης (pourthake:s), the father of the strategos Metakos in Olbia, the son of Zuroziy (see Ζουροζισ). Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. păvărt “press, squeeze out”, chăk "tight";

64. Σανων (sano:n), Panticapaeum – Chuv. săn „face”, ăn "good to be born".

65. Σαραζακος (saradzakos), the archon in Olbia, the son of Poseideis? Latyshev – Chuv. sară "yellow", çaka "linden".

66. Σαρατ (sarat), the father of Karast (see Καραστος) – Chuv. sarat "to make, be yellow".

67. Sardi, a Scythian tribe according to Pliny – Chuv. sǎrt "hill".

68. Σαρυκη (saruke:), female name, Panticapaeum – Chuv. Saruka, female name from sară "blond", "beautiful".

69. Σαυρωμαται (sauro:matai) – Chuv. savăr "marmot" and măti "child", what generally means "children of marmot"

70. Σευραγος (seuragos), Phanagoria – Chuv. sĕvrĕk "spoiled, weak".

71. Σιμος (simos), the son of Auasis (see Αυασισ) and the brother of Bol (see Βολασ), Panticapeum; Σιμο, Bospor, Struve – Chuv. sim "honey drink".

72. Σιρακοι (sirakoi), a Sarmatian tribe – Chuv. sěrěx “feeble”;

73. Σισου (sisou), the father of Hedra. Kerch, Latyshev – Chuv. sis “to feel”;

74. Σισουλι (sisouli), the daughter of Nikeos (see Νικιου)ю Anapa, Latyshev – Chuv. sisü “feeling”, ula "motley";

75. Σιωμαχος (sio:makhos), the father of Chabok (see. Θιαβωγοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. sivĕ "cold", -makh is word-forming suffix.

76. Siraki, a Scythian tribe by Pliny – Chuv. sirek "sensitive".

77. Σκαρτανος (skartanos), the son of Azia (see Αζιαγσ), a priest in Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. shărt "oath", ăn "consciousness, reason".

78. Σκοζοσ (skodzos), the son of Attakouas Chuv. šuç “to move”;

79. Σουσουλων (sousoulo:n), the father of Abroag (see Αβροαγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Chuv. săsăl 1. "brain", 2. "bone marrow", ăn "consciousness, reason."

80. Σωτηρικος (so:te:rikos), the father of Poplios (see Ποπλιου), Tanais, Latyshev – Chuv. sută "trading", ĕrek "profit"

81. Τεισιας (teisias), the son of Deloptikh (see Δηλοπτιχου), Panticapaeum, the 4th century BC. Latyshev – Chuv. těs "color".

82. Τουμβαγος, Olbia, Knipovich – Old Turkic tom "cold", baqa "frog".

83. Φαυχος (faukhos), the son of Poplios (see Ποπλιου), Tanais. Latyshev – Chuv khyvakh "bran, chaff".

84. Chorsari (accordind to Plinius the Scythian name for Persians) – no doubt, this is a Turkic word xarsar/xarsyz "a robber, thief" (Chuv xarsăr "daring, brave, courageous").

85. Χοζιακος (khodziakos), a Scythian, the father of Andanak (see Ανδανακοσ). Latyshev – Chuv. khuç "to break, bend", yăk "misfortune".

86. Χoδαινoσ (xodainos), the father of (see Διδυμοξαρθοσ). Tanais. Latyshev – Chuv xăta "the parent of one spouse with the parents of the other spouse."

87. Χοιδρα (khoidra), the daughter of Sis (see Σισου). Anapa, Latyshev – Chuv. khatăr "cheerful, lively".

Anglo-Saxon Names

1. Ababa, Hababa (the mother of Roman Emperor Maximianus, the Alanian woman) – V.I. Abayev explained the name as "Good weaver" based on the OS. wafun "to weave" and Old Iran. *hu- "good". The last word is absent in the modern Iranian languages, and existed only in compound words of Ancient Iranian. It is noteworthy that Maximianus' father was a Goth Mickey. In this regard, the name can be considered to be of Old English origin – OE. āba, ōweb "fabric".

2. Αλδη (alde:), Alanian princess, a widow of Gorge I, the king of Georgia, the 11th cen – OE. ald “old”. A similar name (nickname) is good for a widow.

3. Αμαγη (amage:), Sarmatian queen – Ossetian has no match, OIran. ama „strong, power”. OE. hām "house, dwelling" and āga „owner”, ā „property, possession” fit perfectly phonetically and for the name of the queen. Obviously the name should be understood as "the mistress of the house".

4. Αρδαβουριος (ardabourios), the name of the three Byzantine commanders – OE. eard "circumstances", "coincidence", "fate", bora "son".

5. Αρθιεμανος (arthiemanos), Berezan' – the letter θ in most cases reflects aspirated t (th), therefore, for the explanation should be taken OE. earđ "plowing" and mann "man", "plowman".

6. Αρσακομας (arsakomas), according to Lucian, a Scythian who wooed the Bosporan princess Mazaya – OE ears "arse", eacen "grown, big".

7. Βαγδοσαυοσ (bagdosauos), the son of Sauaios (see Σαυαιωσοσ), Tanais – Iranian words meaning "happiness" (West Iran. *baxta-, East Iran *vayda-) are not appropriate phonetically. The common component of bagdo – in this and the next name – pays attention. It can be decrypted by OE. beag "crown, wreath" and dōn "to do, create, establish, lay". The second part of the names of the father and the son σαυ corresponds to OE. sāwan “to sow”, “to plant”, "to cultivate". With a little imagination, you can build a name using these names.

8. Βαδαγος (badaγos), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Iedzrad (see Ιεζδραδοσ); Βαδακησ,the strategos in Olbia, the son of Radampson (see Ραδαμψων)– the name "sitting" (Os. badæg still used as a proper name) does not correspond to the status of a strategos. The names of their fathers are deciphered using the Old English language, therefore these names must also be of Anglo-Saxon origin (OE beadu “struggle, war”, āc "oak"). Cf. Βιδακησ, Βωρακοσ. For the same reasons should be discarded Chuv. patak „stick”.

9. Βανας (banas), Panticapaeum – OE. bana "murderer".

10. Βιδακης (bidake:s), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – OE. bid "strength", āc "oak". Cf. Βωρακοσ.

11. Βοστακε (bostake), the son of Tyn (see Θυνε), the brother of Dokion (see Δοκιων). Eltigen, Latyshev, CBI – OE beost „colostrum, beestings”, eacen "grown". Brothers' names are semantically related.

12. Βωρακος (bo:rakos), Gorgippia – OE bora "son", āc "oak". Cf. Βιδακησ

13. Βωρnωn (bo:rno:n), the son of Radampson (see Ραδαμψσων) – OE beorn "warrior, prince".

14. Γαγγαιος (gangaios), the father of Sambion (see Σαμβιων), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. gang "way, trip", ea "water, river".

15. Γοδοσαυος (godosauos), Tanais – OE. god "god", sāwan "sow".

16. Γωσακος (go:sakos), the son of Aspak (see Ασπακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. gōs "goose" and æg "egg".

17. Δαναρασμακος (danarasmakos), the son of Odiard (see. Οδιαρδοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. đān "moist", "wet land", ear "lake", smæcc "taste, smell".

18. Δοκιων (dokio:n), the son of Fin (see Θυνε), the brother of Bostak (see Βοστακε). Eltigen, Latyshev, CBI – OE doc “bastard” eanian “to yean”. Brothers' names are semantically related.

19. Ευβαρνακης (eubarnake:s), the father of Oxardodz (see Οξαρδωζισ), Tanais – OE eow „yew”, barn „child”.

20. Ηλμανος (elmanos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. el „alien”, mann „man”.

21. Θαβεις (thabeis), Panticapaeum, female name – OE đeowe “maid”.

22. Θυνε (thyne), the son of Mastaros (see Μασταρος), the father of Dokion (see Δοκιων) and Bostak (see Βοστακε). Eltigen, Latyshev – OE đynne "skinny, thin".

23. Θιαρμακος (thiarmakos), the son of Chrysippus, Tanais, Latyshev –in accordance with the Greek name of the father "Golden Horse", the name of the son should also be Greek, but nothing suitable for interpretation was found in Greek. Offered OE. đeor “ignition” macian "to make".

24. Ιεζδραδος (iedzrrados), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. đræd „thread, wire”, īse(r)n “iron”, which originated from Old Turkic jerz (later jez) „copper”.

25. Λικος (likos), the son of Spargapeithes – by OE līc "body" could be called a man of large stature.

26. Λογχατης (longchate:s), Lucian – Longhates was the friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) and helped him to kidnap a bride Masaia (see Μαζαια) – the name can be explained as "long-haired" (OE long "long", hæd “hair”).

27. Μακαγος (makagos), the son of Theodulos, Olbia? Knipovich, Levi – the name is not Greek, OE. mæcg "man", æg "egg".

28. Μακεντησ, another friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) helps him to kidnap a bride Masaia (see Μαζαια) – OE maca "comrade, fellow traveler", ent "a giant".

29. Μαριαντης (mariante:s), the father of Arsakomas (see Αρσακομας) – OE mǣre "famous, great", ent "giant".

30. Μασταρος (mastaros), the father of Thyne (see Θυνε), Eltigen, Latyshev, CBI – OE māst “senior, elder, greatest”;

31. Μαστειρα (masteira), Alanian, a wife of Bosporan king Leucanor, the mother of Madzaia (see Μαζαια), Lician – OE. māse "titmouse", tear "tear".

32. Ξοβας (ksobas), Pantucapeum, Σκοπασισ, the Scythian king, Herodotus – OE. scop „poet, singer”.

33. Οδιαρδος (odiardos), the father of Danarasmak (see Δαναρασμακος), Tanais – OE. wōd „jealousy, rage” and eard „nature, fate”.

34. Ομρασμακοσ (omrasmakos), the father of Kharakst (see Χαρακστος), Tanais – OE. ampre "sorrel". Similar words in the Germanic languages come from I.-E *am(p)ra „sour” (first of all, plant acid) (Kluge Friedrich. 1989, 26).The second part of the word corresponds well to the OE. smæc "taste".

35. Οξαρδωζις (oksardo:dzis), the son of Eubarnak (see Ευβαρνακησ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. oxa „ox, bull”, -r is an epenthesis, dwæs „foolish”.

36. Ουαργαδακου (ouargadakou). Olbia. LBIA, V. I, 56 – Chuv. wăr „to discard, fling away, ” and katăk „piece, fragment”.

37. Ουαρζβαλοσ (ouardzbalos, Olbia. LBIA, V. I, 54 – Chuv. vărç “to war” and pulaš “to help”; –

38. Παλακος (palakos), the son of Silur (see Σκιλουροσ), the leader of the Roxolani – OE pæl "pillar" āc "oak".

39. Πασαρονυ (pasarou), Olbi. LBIA, V.I, 84 – Chuv. păsara ”polecat”;

40. Ρευρομαρος (reuromaros),the son of Sipelag (see Σειπελαγοσ) – OE. reowe "cloak", reoma "leather" -r is a suffix to indicate an actor.

41. Σαδαιος (sadaios), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – OE. sāda “tape, rope”.

42. Sagaris, the name of a slave (Ovid), sinus Saggarius (possibly Berezansky estuary according to Pliny), σαγαρισ (sagaris), battle ax, Scythian weapons – OE. sacu "war" and earh “arrow”.

43. Σαμβιων (sambion), the son of Gangaioc (see Γαγγαιος), the strategosin Olbia, Latyshev – OE. sām- "half" and bio “bee”.

44. Σαναγως (sanagos), the son of Somak (see Σαυμακωσ), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. "sea" and naka “barque, ship”.

45. Σανδαρζιος (sandardzios), the father of Khoroath (see Χοροαθος) and Khofarn (see Χοφαρνος) – OE sand "sand", earđ "building".

46. Σαρμαται (sarmatai) – OE sār "sickly, frail, suffering" and mæte "weak, poor, bad," "subordinate, low".

47. Σαυαιωσος (sauaio:sos), the father of Bagdocauos (see Βαγδοσαυοσ) – OE sāwan "sow", "plant", cultivate", īw "yew". According to ancient beliefs, the yew wreath possessed magical properties.

48. Σαυμακος (saumakos), a Scythian king, an inscription in Chersonesos, Latyshev, 2. Σώμακος, the son of Sanag (see Σαναγως), the strategos in Olbia, the father of many strategoi in Olbia, Latyshev – OE. „sea“, maca “comrade, companion”.

49. Σειπελαγος (seipelagos), the father of Reomar (see Ρευρομαροσ), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – OE. sīpian "leak, drip"", lagu "water, flow".

50. Σερεις (sereis), the son of Fandarz (see Φανδαραζοσ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE sear "dry, infertile".

51. Σιρανος (siranos), the father of (see Σαμβατας), Tanais, Latyshev – OE sear, siere “dry, thin”.

52. Σκιλουρος (skilouros), the father of Palak (see Παλακοσ), the king of the Scythian tribe in Crimea – OE. scelian, scellan "separate, divide", ūr "wealth".

53. Σφαροβαις (spharobais), Panticapeum – „mason, builder” (OE. spær “gypsum, limestone” and býan “build”.

54. Τασιος (tasios), the leader of the Roxolani at the end of the 2nd cent. BC – OE tæsan "wound".

55. Φαζιναμος (phadzinamos), Tanais – OE. fācian “seek, demand, achieve” and nama "name". Perhaps the same as Φαδιναμοσ.

56. Φαλδαρανος (phaldaranos), the son of Apollonium, Tanais, Knipovich – OE feld “field, plain” and earn “eagle” (“steppe eagle”).

57. Φανδαραζος (phandardzos), the father of Sereis (see. Σερεισ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE. fandian “try, experience” and racian "dominate, lead".

58. Φαραδος (pharados), Olbia? – OE fǣr „unexpected danger”, “attack” and ād “fire”. Cf. Faraday.

59. Φηδανακος (phe:danokos), Tanais – OE. fadian „lead” and naca "barque, ship".

60. Φλειμναγος (phleimnagos), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. fliema “fugitive” and nǽgan "approach, attack".

61. Φλιανος (phlianos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE. fleon "run, dodge, avoid."

62. Φορηρανος (fore:ranos), the son of Evio, Tanais, Latyshev – OE feorr “distant, remote” or feorh "soul, spirit, personality" and earn "eagle".

63. Φοριαυος (phoriauos), the son of Antisten, Tanais, latyshev – at OE. fōr “trip, way” and eawan “show, open”, the name may mean “conductor”.

64. Φοσακος (phosakos), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. fūs “striving forward” and āc 1. “oak”, 2. “ship of oak”.

65. Χαρακστος (kharakstos), the son of Omrasmak (see. Ομρασμακοσ), Tamais, Latyshev – OE. hār "old", āx "ax", -t is epithesis (cf. Ger. Axt "ax").

66. Χομενος (khome:nos), the son of Athenodor (Tanais) – OE. hām “house” and an, æn „alone, lonely”.

At right: Plate B from Tanais

220 AD. Size: height 1053, width 710 mm. It is stored in the State Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg.
(Photo from Wikipedia)
The name of Khoroath is highlighted in the picture.

67. Χοροαθος (khoroathos), Tanais, the son of Sandzar (see Σανδαρζιος), Tanais – OE heoru "sword", æđan "to swear".

68. Χοροξαδος (khoroksathos), Tanais – OE. heoru "sword", sceađ "sheath".

69. Χορσομανος (khorsomanos) or Χορσαμαντις, a Massaget, spear-bearer of Belisarius, VI century, Procopius of Kessaria – OE. hors "horse", mann "man".

Circassian Names

1. Αβλωνακος (ablo:nakos), the son of Arseouakhos (see Αρσηουαχος), the strategos in Olbia. Latyshev – Kab. `ăblă "arm", unaγă "household".

2. Αβροαγος (abroagos), the son of Susulonos (see Σουσουλον), the strategos in Olbia; Αβραγοσ, the son of Sambut (see Σαμβουτοσ), the father of Kharaxenos (see Χαραξηνοσ), the son of Khuarsadzos (see Χυαρσαζοσ), Latyshev – Kab. abraγuă „great”.

3. Αργουαναγος (arγouanaγos), the son of Karakht, the father of Karakht, Kenozart (see Καινοξαρθοσ) and Nawtim, the princeps in Olbia, Latyshev – Kab. eru "angry, cruel", γwynăγw "neighbour". It was not possible to decrypt all the names in one language.

4. Αρσηουαχος (arse:ouakhos), Αρσηοχος (arse:okhos), Αρσηοαχος (arse:oakhos), a princeps in Olbia – Kab. hărš "gathering place in the afterlife", euvexyn "to descend".

5. Αυχαταιι, Scythian race, descendants of Lipoxais – Kab. euxyn "to beat, hit", taj "leyer".

6. Αψαχος (apsakhos), Tanais, Knipovich; Αψωγασ (apso:gas), Olbia, Latyshev – may be connected with Os. æfsæ „mare” or with Kab. epsyxyn "to get off the horse" ("infantryman").

7. Bevka, a Sarmatian king – Kab. băvyγă "wealth, abundance".

8. Βωροψαζος (wo:ropsadzos), the son of Kardzey (see Καρζεισ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kab. wăr "stormy", psă "soul", ƺă "army".

9. Δαππασις (dappasis), Hermonassa, Latyshev – Kab. dăp “heat, coals”, pasă “early”.

10. Zacatae, a tribe in Asiatic Sarmatia, the territories between the Don and the Volga rivers, Pliny – Kab. zăquăt "standing close together, united".

11. Zuardani, a tribe i Asiatic Sarmatia, Pliny – Kab. zăuerej "warlike", dăn "agree".

12. Ιαζαδαγος, Ιεζδαγοσ (iadzadagos, iedzdagos), Olbia, Vasmer – Kab. i`ă, interjection encouraging action, zădăkuăn "go together".

13.Ιναρμαζος (inarmadzos), the son of Kukodon (see Κουκοδων), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Kab. in "great", armuuž' "laggard".

14. Ινσαζαγος (insadzagos), the son of Sthadzeis (see Σθαζεισ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kab. in "great", seƺe "blade of knife".

15. Καδανακος (kadanakos), the son of Nawag (see Ναυαγοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kab. k`ă "finish", dănaγ "boundary".

16. Καρζεις (kardzeis), the son of Boropsadz (see Βωροψαζοσ) – Kabard. k`arc "acacia, robinia".

17. Κασακος (kasakos), the son of Kartsey (see Καρζεισ), the strategos in Olbia, Κασαγοσ (kasaγos), the father of Arsewakh and Kasken, Olbia, Latyshev – Kab. k`asă 1. "late" 2. "the youngest in the family"; -g

, a noun suffix from an adjective.

18. Κασκηνος (kaske:nos), the son of Kasag (see Κασακοσ) – Kab. qăsk`ăn "shudder".

19. Καφαναγος (kaphanagos), the father of Mourdag) (see Μουρδαγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kab. qăfăn “to dance”, -γă, noun suffix from verbal stems.

20. Κουκοδων (koukodo:n), the father of Inarmaz (see Ιναρμαζοσ), Olbia, Knipovich, Levi – Kab. qăuk`a "killed", udyn "strike".

21. Κουκοναγος (koukonagos), the son of Rekhovnag (see Ρηχουναγοσ), a market administrator in Olbia – Kab. qăuk`a "killed", năgu "face".

22. Μαης (mae:s), the son of Mae. Kerch. CBI – Kab. mae "nutritious, very fatty".

23, Μαισης (maise:s), Gorgippia – Kab. maisă “sharp saber, sharp knife”.

24. Μευακοσ (meuakos), the father of Navak (Ναυακοσ), Tanais – Kab. myvă "stone", qaz "goose".

25. Μουρδαγος (mourdagos), the son of Kafanag (see Καφαναγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – Kabard. mamyr "silence", dăgu "deaf".

26. Ναυαγος (navagos), the father of Kadanak (see Καδανακοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kabard. "yey", vaγuă "star" .

27. Νιχεκος (nikhekos), Gorgippia – Os. nix „forehead”, Kab. năxejk`ă “in spite of”.

28. Ουαμψαλαγος (ouampsalagos), Olbia, Knipovich – Kab. auan "mockery", psaleγu „interlocutor”).

29. Ουαρδανης (ovardane:s), the name of the Kuban River by Ptolemy is not a “wide river”, as Abaev suggests (Os. urux „wide” and don „water, river”), but rather a “stormy river” (Kab. uăr „stormy”). The Kuban flows through the former Adyghe territory (the ancestors of modern Adyghe, Circassians, and Kabardins), but for same time, Ossetians dwelled here too.

30. Ουαχωζακος (ouakho:dzakos), Olbia; Οχωδιακοσ, the son of Dula (see Dula), the father of Azas and Stormais (see Στορμαισ), Tanais, Latyshev – Kab. eγăǯak`uă „teacher”. Liya Akhedzhakova, the actress, Adyghe by nationality.

31. Ουμβηουαρος (ombe:ouaros), the son of Urgbaz (see Ουργβαζοσ), Olbia – Kab. `ump`ej "naughty, inanimate", uăr „boisterous”.

32. Ουργβαζος (ourgbadzos), the father of Umbevar (see Ουμβηουαροσ), Olbia – Kab. uărq "nobleman", baƺă "fly".

33. Ουργοι (ourgoi), according to Strabo one of the Sarmatian tribes – Kab. uerkъ "nobleman". Cf. Ουργβαζοσ.

34/ Ρηχουναγος (re:khounagos), the father of Kukunag (see Κουκοναγοσ), Latyshev – Kab. erăxu "well", năgu "face".

35. Σθαζεις (sthadzeis), the son of Insadz (see Ινσαζαγοσ) – Kab. ščăǯaščă "giant, knight".

36.Χοζανια (khodzania), female name, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Kab. xuăǯyn "spin".

37. Χοαροσαζος (khoarsadzos), the father of Abrag (see Αβροαγος), Tanais, Χουαρσαζος, Olbia – Kab. xuăr "parable" săƺă "blade of knife".

Marble slab from Olbia and its text

Second half of the 2nd century BC. Size: 380x300 mm.
(KNIPOVICH T.N., LEVI E.I. 1968, Table XL )

Translation of text on the slab: To good time! Strategists with Nautim, the son of Arguanag, led by Apollon Prostat, Theodor, son of Tumbag, Tryphon, son of Tryphon, Godarz, son of Farsei, Gistei, son of Saday, dedicated a gold necklace for the welfare of the city, for peace and for their own health and courage. Feodul, the son of Makag, served excellently. The Council and the people honored the strategists with a golden crown for the excellent performance of the post.

Chechen Names

1. Αρδαρισκος (ardariskos), Tamais, Latyshev – Chech. ardan “to act”, ritsq “sustenance”.

2. Αρδαρος (ardaros), 1. The son of Mastus (see. Μαστουσ); 2. The father of Midakh (see Μιδαχοσ) and Panaukh (see Παναυχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – the name should be interpreted in the Chechen language, since the names of Mastus, Midakh and their relatives, common in the Northern Black Sea region, are deciphered using Chechen. Perhaps Chech. ardan "to act" and Iar "peace, stillness" should be kept in mind.

3. Αρδοναστοσ (ardonastos), Tanais – Chech. ardan "to act", aьsta "hoe, hack".

4. Αρεσκουσα (areskousa), the daughter of Doridz (see Δοριζου), Eltegene (Kerch). CBI, Latyshev – Chech. ārē "place, space", -s – ergative ending, kuysa "bare, devegetated, treeless".

5. Ασαιοι (asaioi), Sarmatian tribe, Ptolemy (Ases, Yasas, Iazyges) – the original name of the Ossetians. However, the question arises – why are the Ossetians called the Balkars the Ases? On the other hand, among the Chuvash, especially of the older age, there is a saying: “Epirus asem” (we are Ases). This name may originate from Chech āsa "belt, sash".

6. Ασαροσ (asaros), Panticapaeum – Chech. asar "a kind of weed plant".

7. Γαος (gaos), Tanais, Knipovich – Chech. gIāz „goose”.

8. Γοργοσας (gorgosas), the father of Khakh (see Χαχας), Gorgippia – Chech. gorga „round”, āsa „belt, stipe”.

9. Δοριζου (doridzou), the father of Mokkapori (see Μοκκαπορι) and Areskusa (see Αρεσκουσα), CBI, Eltegene (Kerch). Latyshev – Chech. dōr ”breaking”, iyza "to pull".

10. Δουλασ (doulas), the son of Tryphon, Tanais, Latyshev. CBI – Chech. dovla “to finish, reach”;

11. Θιαγαρος (thiagaros), the father of Midakh (see Μιδαχοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chech. tІaьkhьara "last".

12. Καρζοαζος (kardzoadzos). LBIA, V. I, 21 – Chech. qarzō “to motley” az “voice, noise”;

13. Κοθινας (kothinas), the father of Mast (see Μαστουσ), Panticapaeum – Chech. kutsan – the adjective for kuts“posture”.

14. Μά (ma:), the name of six women in Kerch. CBI – Chech. maь "alder";

15. Μαστους (mastous), the son of Kothinas (see Κοθινασ), Tanais, Panticapeum – Chech. mas “feather”, тIāус "peacock". Apparently so was previously called a pheasant.

16. Μαχαρης (makhare:s), the son of Mithridates VI Eupator, Kingdom of Pontus (Justi Ferdinand, 1895: 188) – Chech. maьkharan ”noisy, clamorous”.

17. Μιδαχος (midakhos), inscription in Phanagoria, the son of Thiaga (see Θιαγαροσ), the father of Sturan – Chech. mattakh, derivative of mettig "a place".

18. Μοκκαπορι (mokkapori), the son of Doriz (see Δοριζου) and the brother of Arekusa (see Αρεσκουσα), CBI, Eltegene (Kerch), Μοκαπορος, Kerch. CBI. Latyshev – Chech. mokhk ”earth”, phar "master".

19. Μουkουναγος (moukounagos), a strategos in Olbia, Latyshev – Chech. mukъō "pretty free", "not busy"; naggakhь "rarely".

20. Μουkουναkυρος (moukounakuros), a priest in Olbia, Latyshev – Chech. mukъō "pretty free", "not busy"; nakkharō, the ergative case of nikkh "hive".

21. Οχοαρζανης (okhoardzane:s), the son of Patey (see Πατεισ), Tanais – Chech. oьkhu "flying"aьrzu "eagle", aьrzun "aquiline".

22. Παναυχος (panaukhos), the son of Ardar (see Αρδαροσ), Tanais, Latyshev – Chech. pāna "novel", ōkhu is the participle from ākha "to plow".

23. Πατεις (pateis), the father of Okhoardzan (see Οχοαρζανησ), Tanais, Latyshev – since the name of Okhoardzan is well explained by the Chechen language, the name of his father must also be of Chechen origin. In this case, you can keep in mind Chech. pott "block of wood" in an indirect case with the ending–e.

24. Σιρανου (siranou), the father of the Sambat (see Σαμβατιωνος). Tanais, Köppen – Chech. siran “glazed, enamel”;

25. Χαχας (khakhas), the son of Gorgos (see Γοργοσασ)- Chech. khēkhō "watchman", khьakha 1. "to languish," 2. "to doom".

26. Χοαργαρος (khoargaros), Tanais – Chech. khoar is a verbal noun from khoa "comprise", gara "kin, generation".

Hungarian Names

1. Αβνακος, Αβναγος (abnakos, abnagos), the father of Abnodz (see Αβνωζος) and Rathagos (see Ραθαγωσος) – Hung. eb „dog”, nagy “big”.

2. Αβνωζοσ (abno:zos), Olvia, according M. Vasmer (ABAYEV V.I. 1979: 284)– Hung. ab „dog” and nyuz “to rip off, flay” (together there may be a “flayer”).

3. Βαγδοχος (baγdokhos), the son of Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), the brother of Godigas (see Γωδιγασος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος), Tanais, Latyshev – Hung badogos "tinsmith".

4. Βορυσ (borus), an inscription on vases according M.Vasmer (Ibid: 284) – absurd inscription for a vase “brown, red” (Os. bora „brown, red”). pefectly fit Hung. boros „wine”.

5. Γιλγοσ (gilgos), the son of Mandas (see Μανδασοσ), Tanais (JUSTI FERDINAND. 1895: 115) – Hung. gyilkos "a murderer".

6. Γωδιγασος (go:digasos), the brother of Bagdokh (see Βαγδοχος) and Dalosak (see Δαλοσακος), Tanais, Latyshev – Hung. gond "care" and igaz "truthful, real".

7. Δαλοσακος (dalosakos), the son og Simfor (see Σιμφωροσ), thr brother of Bagdokh (see Βαγδοχος) and Godigas (see Γωδιγασος), Tanais, Latyshev – Hung. dalos "singer", agg "щld man".

8. Dule (Gen. Dulae, Alanian Prince at the Hungarian Chronicle Simon Keszai (ALEMANY AGUSTI. 2000: 4.43) – Hung. gyula (pronounced dyula) – the title of the second most important leader of the Hungarian tribal union, a later name.

9. Ιωδας (io:das), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Hung. ivadék „offspring”.

10. Ιωδεσμαγος (io:desmagos), Olbia – Hung. ivadék „offspring” and mag „seed”.

11. Μανδασοσ (mandasos), the father of Gilg (see Γιλγοσ) (Ibid) – Hung. mond "to speak", mondas "dictum, aphorism”.

12. Οσσιγασος (ossigasos), Tanais – Hung. össz „common”, egesz „whole, entire”.

13. Ραθαγωσος (rathago:sos), the father of Abnodz (see Αβνωζος), the son of Abnak (see. Αβνακος), Olbia, Latyshev – Hung. “to cut”, tag “member” (derivatives tagos and tagozodik “to divide into parts”).

14. Ρασσογος (rassogos), the father of Rakhoisak (see Ραχοισακοσ), Tanais – Hung. rosz "bad", szagos "odorous".

15. Ραχοισακος (rakhoisakos), Tanais– Hung. “to cut”, haj “hair”, szak “part”.

16. Σαβαδα (sabada), the father of Nikrfor. Tiritaki, Gaydukevich, Marti – Hung. szabad "free".

17. Σαβωδακοσ (sabo:dakos), the son of Psicharion, Tanais, Latyshev – perhaps as previous;

18. Σογος (sogos), Gorgippia, Tanais, Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Hung. szagos "odorous".

Baltic Names

1. Βαλωδις (balo:dis), the son of Demetrios, the father of Loiagas (see) – Let. baluodis „dove”.

2. Βαστακος (bastakos), a Scythian, Tanais, Latyshev; Βαστακας (bastakas), Kerch, the son of Smord (see Σμορδο). CBI – Lith. bast/bakst "hit, push", bèsti "to stick, prick", -ακ, noun suffix.

3. Βραδακος (bradakos), Panticapaeum, Latyshev – Lith. bradyty, Let. bradît “wade, ford”).

4. Κυρηακοσ (Kyreakos), the name is repeatedly found in the Northern Black Sea region (VINOGRADOV ANDREY. 2015. Chersonesus. Tombstone of Kyriakos,.. IV–V centuries.) – Lith. kūrėjas "creator" from kùrti "to build, to erect".

5. Λευκανωρ (leykano:r) – Lith. laĩkas "time, deadline, appointment", nóras "will, wish, desire".

6. Λοιαγασ (loiagas), the son of Baluod (see Βαλωδις) – Lith. lojà – swearword, lojūgas "Gewohnheitsflucher" (FRAENKEL E. 1962. Band 1: 406).

7. Μαζαια (madzaia), the daugter of Masteira (see Μαστειρα), Lician, Μαζισ (madzis), Μαζασ (madzas) – Lith. mažas, Let. mazs „small”.

8. Οσμαρακος (osmarakos), the son of Amaiak (see. Αμαιακος), Tanais, Latyshev – Lith. asmuo "face, person", ragas „horn”).

9. Ουσταναος (oustanaos), Tanais – Lith. austinis "woven".

10. Παταικος (pataikos), Gorgippia – Lith. pataikus "obsequious".

11. Σαρον (saron), name of the area on the Borysthenes River according to Ptolemy – Let. sārņi "tailings, slag".

12. Σαυαγασκος (sauagaskos), perhaps Σαυαγακος (sauagakos), Phanagoria – Lith. sauga “protection, safety”, akis “eye”.

13. Σαυαγος (sauaγos), the names of three persons on the monuments of the Taman Peninsula, Panticapaeum – Lith. sauga “protection, safety”.

14. Σμορδο (smordo), the father of Bastak (see Βαστακας). Kerch. Latyshev – Lith. smardas “stench”.

15. Τιργαταω (tirgatao:), the first wife of the king of Sinds Hekataios, Polyaenus – Let. tirgotājs “merchant”). Justi attributed here the name of the progenitor of the Scythians Targitaos [JUSTI FERDINAND 1895: 322]. The word is based on a Turkic stem meaning "trade". The Baltic tribes could have borrowed this word from the creators of one of the variants of the Corded Ware culture in the Baltics.

16. Χιμίρις (Khimiris, Phanagoreia, IV–Vth century C.E.) – toponym on the stele from the hamlet of Soleny (see. Ουσταναοσ) – Lith. kemeras "eupatorium", čemerys "hellebore". The genus of flowering plants Eupatorium is named for Mithridates Eupator, the Bosporan king.

Other Names

1. Αζαριον (adzarion), Tanais by Knipovich – maybe from Mord azor "a master, owner"?

2. Αρδαρακοσ (ardarakos), the son of Tryphon, Tanais, Latyshev – Arm. արդարացի (ardaraсi) „fair, rightly”.

3. Γοσων (gosο:n), Chersonesus, Vasmer – Arm. գուսան (gusan) "folk singer". Hübshman entered the word in the list of Persian borrowings (No.149), but notes that this word does not correspond to New Persian kūsān phonetically but does not offer any etymology (HÜBSCHMANN HEINRICH. 1972). In the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea Region there are several names with the meaning "singer", cf. Σκοπασισ, Ξοβασ (see Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon). On the other hand, the presence of Armenians in the Sarmatian environment is confirmed by the Ossetian-Armenian correspondences in anthroponymy, vocabulary and grammatical structures (KAMBOLOV T.T. 2006, 278-280).

As can be judged from the names of the Sarmatian onomasticon, the population of Great Scythia was multinational. Representatives of different nations lived here in peace and harmony for many centuries, which can be a good example for our time.