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The Scytho-Sarmatian Problems / Sarmatian Onomasticon

Sarmatian Onomasticon

Sarmatian onomastikon was compilled on the basic of data of Ladislav Zgusta, V. Latyshev, T. Knipovich, worked up and supplemented by V. Abayev, V. Petrov, J. Harmatta, A. Alemany and other experts and was used to count the number of names that could be deciphered using primarily one language.

The Onomasticon is used for calculation of the number of names having to be explained by means of mainly one language. For the convenience, the violet type is used for explanation by means of Germanic languages, the red one is for Chuvash language, the bold green one is for Ossetic, the blue one if for Kurdish, the light-green one is for other Iranian languages, the brown one is for the Hungarian languages, the grey one is for the Baltic languages. The words explained by means of different languages are indicated by the black, among them Caucasian languages are indicated by bold. It should also be noted that from time to time significant changes and additions are been made in the onomastics, so when you use it is necessary to take the latest version.

1. Ababa, Hababa (the mother of of Roman Emperor Maximianus, the Alanian woman) V.I. Abayev explained the name as "Good weaver" on the basis of the OS. wafun "to weave" and Old Iran. *hu- "good". The last word is absent in the modern Iranian languages, and existed only in compound words of Ancient Iranian. It is noteworthy that Maximianus' father was a Goth Mickey. In this regard, the name can be considered to be of Old English origin OE. āba, ōweb "fabric".

2. Αβδαρακοσ (abdarakos), Tanais the name can have different explanations. V. Abayev proposed Os äf "water", Av dār "to hold, have", for example Os don-daräg. However similar words are present also in Kurdish av "water", dara "rich".

3. Αβνωζοσ (abno:zos), Olbia Hung ab"dog" and nyuz "to flay, skin".

4. Αβροαγοσ (abroagos), the son of Susulonos (see Σουσουλον), the strategos in Olbia; Αβραγοσ, the son of Sambus (see Σαμβουτοσ), the father of Kharaxenos (see Χαραξηνοσ), the son of Khuarsadzos (see Χυαρσαζοσ), Latyshev Kabard. abrague great.

5. Αγροι (aγroi), according to Strabo, some tribe near Lake Maeotis Harmatta explains the name as "the first" (OIr. agra).

6. Addac, (Alanian king in Spain) the name can be explained by means of the Iranian, Turkic, and Germanic languages.

7. Αζιαοσ (adziaos), the father of Skartanos (see Σκαρτανοσ), Albia, Latyshev; Αζιασ (adzas), the father of Papas (see Παπασ), Gorgippia Chuv. ç father.

8. Αζαριον (adzarion), Tanais by Knipovich maybe from Mord azor "a master, owner"?

9. Ακασασ (akasas) "unharmed, healthy"(Os. ägas, igas, Hung. egesz) or "white ermine" (Turk. aq white, as ermine).

10. Αλανοι (alanoi), the name of a tribe of Alans from OPers aryana Arians, OS.allon? However, taking into account the possibility of the presence of Anglo-Saxons in Sarmatia, we can assume that this is a modified name for the Angles (angloi → aŋloi → alŋoi → alanoi). The stem of the name has Turk oğlan "son, boy, young man". It is significant that the grandfather of the Gothic historian of Jordan wore a name Alanoviiamuth. Cf. Ρευκαναλοι.

11. Αλανορσοι (alanorsoi), another tribe of Alans White Alans (Os. ors white)? Perhapse, Turkic oğlan "son, boy". The second partial word may originate from hors horse.

12. Αλδη (alde:), Alanian princess, a widow of Gorge I, the king of Georgia, the 11th cen OE. ald old. A similar name (nickname) is good for a widow.

13. Αλεξαρθοσ (aleksarthos), Phanagoria OGr. ἀλέξω "to defend", the second partial is a derivative from ἀραρισκω "to bind, protect, arm" (Cf. αρθμοσ "alliance, friendship") .

14. Αλουθαγοσ (alouthaγos), Olbia brewer (Os. äluton, OE. ealuđ beer)

15. Αμαγη (amage:), Sarmatian queen Ossetian has no match, OIran. ama strong, power. OE. hām "house, dwelling" and āga owner, ā property, possession fit perfectly phonetically and for the name of the queen.Obviously the name should be understood as "the mistress of the house".

16. Αμαδοκοι (amadokoi), according to Ptolemy some Sarmatian tribe, and on his map there are three more such toponyms Chuv. mătăk 1. "short" 2. "grumpy, quarrelsome"; -a a prothetic vowel.

17. Αμαιακοσ (amaiakos), Tanais "builder" (Oc. amajun to build, amajäg builder).

18. Αμαρδιακοσ (amardiakos), Tanais Os amädtag , "victim" is doubtful. Old Gr διακοσ "servant" and αμαρα "ditch, tranch", that is "digger, ditcher" could be better. This name can be translation from unknown language to Greek.

19. Αμβουστοσ (amboustos), Tanais maybe, the name has Latin origin as some Roman consuls had the name Ambustos (Lat. *ambŏsta "a thing can be taken by two hands").

20. Αμωμαιοσ, (amo:maios), Olbia Gr. άμάομαι "to gather".

21. Αμωσπαδοσ (amo:spados), Olbia, Latyshev Gr. άμάω "to cut", σπάδος "eunuch".

22. Anbazuk (a ruler on the Northern Caucasus, 1-2 cen. AD) Os bazuk arm, shoulder.

23. Αξεινοσ Ποντοσ (akseinos pontos), Black Sea Os. äxsin, OPers. axšaina blue, grey-blue.

24. Αορσοι (aorsoi), a Sarmatian tribe maybe this is other writing of the name of the Avars (cf. Ir awara "a vagabond").

25. Αραβατησ (arabate:s), Alanian hireling serving Emperor Issak I Komnenos Turk arabačy "a driver".

26. Αργοδασ (arγodas), , Αργωδα (argo:da), a city in Chersonesos Taurica Os. arğaun ( arğud participle) to sanctify, Chuv. arka foot and tu mountain.

25.  (ardabda) or  (abdarba), Alanian name the city of Feodosiya, translated as "the city of seven deities" � Os ard �oath�, avd �seven�. However see . and the next names. 26.  (ardabourios), the name of the three Byzantine commanders � OE. ared, arod "quick, brave", bora "son", Lit arda "quarrel", būras "a boor". 27. (ardariskos), Tanais � OSaxon ard "dwelling, house", OE risc "rush". 28. (ardaros), Tanais, Panticapaeum, Gorgippia) � Arm. ardar �just, fair. 29.  ardonagaros), Tanais � OE. ared, arod "quick, brave", ge-nāg "fast, quick". 30.  ardonastos), Tanais � OSaxon ard "dwelling, house", OE nest "nest". 31.  (arthamon), Olbia � the origin from Av ātarš �fire� is doubtful, better Chech a�rta �blunt� and � mō�nan (an adjective of mō �scar, cicatrice�). 32. (arthiemmanos), Berezan � OE earđ "tillage" or eorđe �earth� and mann "a man". 33. (arii), Sarmatian tribe � OE ār �honour�. 34.  (arifarnes), according to Diodor of Sicily �the name of the king of the tribe Θατεισ�) � the root farn occurred in the ephygrafy of the Black Sea Area repeatedly. There is in Iranian mythology farn/xvarna- �divine force�, �celestial grace�, but Ossetic word farn means �rest�, Afg parnā �sleepy, inert�. The words of this root are also present in the Germanic and other languages. The leader of Goths Farnobius is known in the history. F. Holthausen gave also the proper names Farnoin and Farnulf and explained OE farnian �to have happiness� as a loan-word from OIc (farna-sk). In general, Germanic languages have the words of this root, which means �fern� (a kind of plant � Ger Farn). According to folk legends the flower of the fern brings good luck. Sanskrit purna means �full�. The Chuvash language has the word parne, which means �a present, gift�, and purăn �to live�. Thus, we could suppose that the word of the root parn/farn/purn having the meaning �happiness, peace of mind, grace, favor� existed in many languages of Eastern Europe. Therefore, one has to consider the possibility of both Iranian, and Germanic, and other origin of similar names. As the first part of Arifarnes� name cannot be good explicated by means of other languages except Old English (OE. ār, āre �honour�), we may reason to translate the name as somewhat similar to �honorable fortune�. 35.  (arnake:s), Tanais � �wild� (Os ärnäg). 36. (arsake:s), Olbia, Panticapaeum � �bear� (Os. ars �bear�, Arsäg � wide-spread human name in Iran and Armenia. 37. arse:ouaakhos) � Name a very awkward to pronounce, perhaps there is an error in the spelling. Os ars �a bear� has no good attribute in modern-day Iranian languages. Maybe OE eors "arse" and eowocig suit here. 38.  (asaioi), a Sarmatian tribe, Ptolemy � The origin of the word is dark. Asses, Yasses or Iazyges are other variants of this name which from originates the name of Ossetians However why the Ossetians themselves call Balkars with this word? On the other hand, among the Chuvash, especially older ones, there is a saying: "Epir Asem" (we are Asses). 39. aspakos), Tanais � this and the following names can not be convincing explanated. �ommon Ir aspa �horse� and OGr  "shield" could lie in the stem of the word. 40. Tanais) � Ir aspa �horse� and Os ändon �steel�? Strangely, the name is pefectly translated with the Kazakh language � Kaz. aspan "sky, heaven, heights", aspandan � "out of heaven" (apparently the name could mean "descended from heaven"). However, the root of the word has Iranian origin and is present in almost all Iranian languages in forms asman/osman/esman, but it is not found in Ossetian. 41. Aspar (aspar), the full name Flavius Ardabur Aspar magister militum ("Master of soldiers") of the Eastern Roman Empire of the 5th cen., a son of Flavius Ardabur � Many researchers have tried to decipher the meaning of the name with the Iranian and Turkic languages. Fasmer displayed the name as OIr *aspabāra "a rider." If the name of Alan hides ancient Anglo-Saxons, it is possible to decipher the name using OE sparian "to preserve or protect". Initial a- can be prefixed with denial and then the name means "damaged", but in Old English a- can also mean "always, permanent, eternal", then the name could mean "ever saved". However Ogr  "shield"is good for the name of commander. 42. Asparuk (asparuk), ruler of a Bulgar kingdom in the second half of the 7th cen �V. Abaev displayed the name of the undisputed Turk by means of Iran. asp-"horse" and OIr rauka "light", what is questionable in itself, but the resulting combination is more suitable nickname for a horse than for a person's name. Most likely it is a modification named Aspar (see) 43.  (aspourgos), ruler of ihe Bosporan Kingdom in the 1st cen. � V.Abayev and J. Harmatta add to Ir asp- �horse� Av ugra �strong�. Again dubious name for the king, most likely the name of Greek origin when  is derived from �work� (cf. Ogr -�a master, creator�). OGr �shield� can be the second partial word. 44.  (asfourougos), Olbia, by Latyshev � perhaps this is a modification of the name (see). 45.  (atamadzas), Gorgippia � V. Abayev deduced this name from Os wac �a word� and Av maz- �great� what is phonetically flawed. Better Chuv etem �a person� and ǎç� 1. �a male�, 2. � thunder and lightning�. 46.  atasas), Tanais � assuming the loss of r in Os tärsun "fear" and the Iranian particle a-"un-", "no" the name can mean �fearless�. Turk atasyz "fatherless" suits better. 47.  auradzakos), Tanais � this name can be explained by different ways (Av varāza �a boar�, wide-spread Iranian awara � a vagabond�, Kurd awr �cloud�, Turk abra- �to save�, Chuv avraš �to tangle� etc) 48.  (afteimakos), Tanais � according to V. Abayev � the seventh� (Os ävdäimag); Chuv ăptă �ide (fish)�, măka �blunt�, yumakh �tale, story�. Thrak . 49. (apsaxos), Tanais by Knipovich, apsagosOlbia by Latyshev � the word can be connected with Os āfsā �a mare� or Kabard epsyxyn �to dismount� (�an infantryman�). 50. Babai, Sarmatian king � to Chuv papay 1. �an old man, grandfather�, 2. �thunder�. 51.  bagdosauosTanais � wide-spread Iranian words baxt/bext "luck" and Kurd saw �fear�. 52. bagdoxos), Tanais � wide-spread Iranian words baxt/bext "luck" and xoš/xuš �good�. Such words are absent in Ossetic. 53.  (bage:s), Gorgippia � this name can be explained by different ways � OIran baga "god" � Hung baka �an infantryman�, bak �he-goat�, Chech. baga 1. �pine wood�, 2. �to quarrel�, �to chatter�, Tat baqa �a frog� etc. 54.  badagos), Olbia � this name can also be explained by different ways � Os. badäg "the sitting", Hung. badogos �a tinsmith�, Chuv putek �a lamb�, wide-sopread Tuk butaq �a twig�, Goth *badu- �fight�, Lit vadas, vadovas "a leader". 55.  bairaspos), Tanais � Kurd ����. beyar �hill, mountain pasture� and hespajo �horse herdsman�. 56.  (baiormaios) � Kurd beyar �hill, mountain pasture�, Pers maya �cow�. 57.  (banadaspos), Sarmatian king � Common Ir band �to bind� abd asp "horse" . 58. (banas), Panticapaeum � OE bana "a kiler". 59.  (bastakas), Tanais � Os bästag �fellow countryman�. 60. Beorgus, Alanian king � OE beorg 1. �mountain�, 2. �defence�. 61. Beuka, Sarmatian king � to Ger  �pine-tree� or Peucini, a branch of the Bastarnae. 62.  (beuradzooria), female name � �much speaking� (Os bewrä �much�, zuryn �tospeak�) or to Kurd bawer �faith� and zorî �power�. 63. bidake:s, Panticapaeum, by Latyshev � maybe akin to Chuv. pitĕ �strong, hard�. 64. biaste:s), Panticapaeum, by Latyshev � Kurd, Yagn bist �meal, flour�. 65. � (wor�aspo:s), Tanais, by Knipovich � common Ir bor/bur �yellow, brown� aspa �horse�. 66. (borus), inscrition on vases � proposed by Abaye �brown, red� (Os. bora) is absurdity. Hung boros �wine, for wine� suits perfectly for vase. 67.  (bradakos), Panticapaeum � OE brād �broad� , acas, ǽces "an axe". 68.  (bo:rakos), Gorgippia � Cuv purak �bast, box�. 69.  (bo:ropsadzos), Olbia by Latyshev � according to V.Abayev bewrä-fsad �the having much army�. 70.  gaos), Tanais by Knipovich � Kabard ğues �haze, mist�, Chech ğāz �goose, gander�, Lit. gaus �plenty�. 71. godosauosTanais � proposed by V. Abayev �black thinking� (Os. ğud �thought� and saw �black�) is far phonetic. Better Chech gIodōtsu �helpless�. 72.  (gorgosas) , Gorgippia � V. Abayev cosidered Av. gouru- �heavy� and Os gos �ear�. In different way one can consider Tur qorq �to fear�, us �mind�, Chech gorg �round�, ā�� �belt, stripe�, Arm gorg �carpet�. 73. goso:n, Chersonesos � Arm. gusan �folc singer�. Cf.  (see Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon),  , . 74.  go:ar), Alaniab ruler in Caul in the beginning of the 5th cent � OE gear �protection, weapon, arms�. See Eochar. 75.  go:digasos), Tanais � �good thinker�? (Os. ğud �thought� and igas �intact, safe�). Better "godly fright, horror" (OE god "god" and egesa "fear, fright, horror"). 76. go:sakos), Tanais by Knipovich � from Os gos �ear�? Better kasog "a Circassian". See. . 77.  (dalosakos), Tanais � Chech. dālō �to deliver, bring�, sākkhō �control, observation�. 78.  (danaradzmakos), Tanias � according to V. Abayev Don Urazmak, where Urazmak is proper name present in Nart epos. However, the name Arsmak, Arsamak is also spread among Chechens. It can originate from �hech. arzu "�agle", Chech. verb dan has many different meanings � "to do give birth", "to come" "to bring", "to see�. 79.  (dandank: ), the name of locality on Crimean shore � Os dändag �tooth�. If they mean some kind of a rock in the shape of a tooth, then this explanation may be good, but if it's just a mountain one can consider Turk. dan daqy, where dan and similar words may have different senses (e.g. �glory�) at daqy �a mountain� (from dağ). 80.  (dandarioi), the name of people on the Low Kuban' and Maeotia � explanation by Os don �river� and darun �to keep� is doubtful. As the Low Kuban' lies between Black Sea anf Sea of Azov, the explanation give Kurd derya/darya �sea� and dan �inside� that is �surrounded by seas�. 81.  (douaragos), Berezan Island � Since there are on the island deposits of salt and its production was carried out from ancient times, it is best suited to explain the name by Chuv tǎvar �salt�. 82. Dula (Alanian prince according Simon of Kéza) � Hung gyula the title of one of the Hungarian leaders, later the name. 83. Eochar (Alanian ruler) � OE. eoh �horse� and ār "a courier". However Eochar and  (see) could be the same person. 84. (eubarnake:s), Tanais � Turk em- �to suck�, barmaq �a finger�. 85.  dzabakos), Tanais � Os cäwäg "walker", Chuv. çupakh �bream�, Kabard jabeğeu �lean, meagre�. 86.  (dzakatai), a tribe in Asian Sarmatia � Chv çuxat �to lose, disappear� (�the disappeared�). 87.  (dzantikos), Iazygian prince � from Av zantu �a tribe�? Chuv çun �to burn� and těk �calmly�. 88.   (dzarandos), Tanais by Knipovich � �old� (Os zärond). 89.  (dzarina), queen of Sakes by Ctesias � common Iranian zarin �gold�. 90. dzeuakos), Tanais  Os zäväg "lazy", Chuv �fat�. 91.  (dzoure:s), Tiras � common IrIranian zur- �strength, force�. 92.  (elmanos), Olbia by Vasmer � OE el �strange, fremd�, mann �a man�. 93.  (e:rakas), Panticapaeum, the main Alanian dragoman at the beginning of the 3rd cen. � Chuv erekh �wine� and ăs �to draw up� (�a cupbeerer�). 94.  (thabeis), Panticapaeum, female name � Chuv săpay �modest�. 95. thiagaros), Tanais � OE đi instrumental of đǽt "this, that" and ǽger "an egg". 96. thiarmakosTanais � OE đi instrumental of đǽt "this, that" and earm "an arm". 97. thuskes), Olbia � Os tusk�a �wild boar� originating from Turk čočqa �pig, hok�, Hung tuskó �a stump, bole�, tüske �a prickle�, OE tūsc �a fang, tusk�. 98.  iasadanakos), Tanais � according to V. Abayev �steel As� from Os ändon �steel�, what is doubdful (see ). Dan- is Turkic affix which means "out of, from." Perhaps this name was given to a native of the Iazigian tribe 99. iauakos), Tanais � Turk. jabaq �horse� suits perfectly. 100.  iafagos), Olibia � another form of seeGag jafak �horse�. 101.  iedzdagos), Olbia � an explanation of how "celestial power" from the Os izäd "god" is phonetically flawed, better Kurd yazd, yazdan �god� and agos "groove", but this combination is in doubt. The name can have also Turkic origin (Turk jez �copper� and dağ �mountain�). 102. Olbia) � OE đræd �thread, wire� and īse(r)n �iron� originated from Turk jerz (later jez) �copper�. 103.  (insadzagos), Olbia � Turk ense �neck� and jağ �fat�. 104. (iramboustas), Tanais by Knipovich � perhaps the originof the name is the same as  (See). If the name has Latin origin, Lat īra �anger� ca suit for the first partial word. 105. (iravadis), Tanais by Knipovich � Chuv ir �morning�, avăt � to pipe, wrable�. Cf. Chuv proverb Ir avǎtakan kuckuk kuksha pulnǎ, tet "Early singing bird grows bald. 106. irbis), Tanais � Turk irbiz �lynx, panther�. 107. (irganos), Tanais by Knipovich � Chuv yrkhan �lean, meagre�. 108.  /  (itakse:s / itadze:s), Alanian leader in the 8th cen. � Chuv yitǎ aça "he-dog". 109. (io:das), Panticapaeum by Latyshev � As OE jeđe / eađe �light, pleasant� is semantic tied wthis other word in the next name, we have reason to consider this OE word for explanaiting this name too. 110.  io:desnagos), Olbia � �pleasant taste" (OE jeđe/eađe � light, pleasant � and smæcc �taste, smell�. 111.   (kadanakosTanais � Os k�äzänäg �a stammerer, stuterer�. 112.  (kainoksarthos), Olbia � "who dissolved an oath" (Chuv kainǎ "to tear, break apart", shǎrt "an oath". 113.  (kamasarue:), Panticapaeum, female name � Chuv khǎma �otter�, sǎra �grey�, sarǎ �yellow�. 114. Kandak, leader of the aliance of Alans, Skirs, and Sadagars, the 5th cen. � Turk qan �khan, ruler�, dağ �mountain�. 115.   (karastos), Tanais � Chuv kărăs �poor� and tus �a friend�. 116. kasagos), Olbia � Turk qazaq (originated from qarzaq) "a vagabond, free, independed man". Cf . 117. kasakos), Olbia � see the previous. 118.  kafanagos)Olbia � "dancer" (Kabard käf qefenyğe �dance�. 119.  koudzaiosOlbia � Chuv kuç, Tat küz and other similar Turkic �eye� and common Turki aj �moon�. 120. kofarnos),Tanais � to the root farn (see can be addedwords out of different languages. . 121.  leimanosTanais, Panticapaeum � Os. limän �a friend�, Mok �loman� �a man�, lomanen� �a friend�, Veps �aman �dumb person�? Eng eman "lover". All they origineted out of OE el "strange, fremd" and mann "a man". See also , . 122.  (limnakos), Gorgippia � As ? However Rom limn �wood�, Lat līmen �threshold� could be considered too. 123.  (mada), Panticapaeum, female name � Os. madä and other similar Iranian �mother�, Kurd. made �a thing�. 124. mado:isTanais � Os. mud �honey�, OE. *mād �a stick�, mađu �a worm�. 125.  (madzaia), the daughter of Masteira and Leukanor, king of Bosporus � OE. māse �a tomtit�. 126.  (mae:s), Panticapaeum � Os. mäj(ä) �moon�, Kurd maî �another�, Afg māji �fluid, liquid�, Tat, Kaz may �fat�. 127.  (maises), Gorgippia � Chuv mǎysa �nacklace of coins�, Kabard maise "sharp sabre, knife" 128.  (maifarnon), , Olbia � About the root farn see . The first partial word can have many explanations (see ). 129. maito:nion, according to Ptolemy the city on the river Dniester (Tiras) � common Iranian majdan �place, space�. 130.  (maio:sara), Panticapaeum, female name � Os mäj(ä) �moon�, sar �head�, Kurd. mejû �hirn�, sar �head�, meya �wine�, sere �old�. 131.  (maldagos), Phanagoria by Latyshev � Chuv. mul �property, stock� and tăkă �rich�. 132. (mammaros), Panticapaeum � V. Abayev proposed Os man-mar "man killer" if In this case OE mann "a man" and māra "bigger, stronger" are even better. Lat mammāre "to give suck". 133. mandasos), Tanais � Hung mondas "expression, aphorism", OE mad "basket", ǽs "food". 134.  maniagosTanais � Old Os mani-ag �who will be a man�, Arm manyak �nacklace�. 135.  (mardzakos), Panticapaeum � Hung morczol �to crumb�, Chech marzō �a husbad's relative�. 136. marha, according to Ammianus Marcellinus fighting cry, a signal of war of the Limigantes, Sarmatian slaves � obviously the word originated lies Os margä "strike, kill, death!" or Kurd. merg "death", although there is the phonetic mismatch between marha and margä, can be ignored, if Kabardian word marzhe would not exist that means not only "cry, a call", but as the cry is a call to move forward. It is possible that this appeal Kabardians (Circassians) could borrow from the Ossetians. Similarly, this call in another modified form could be used by other tribes. 137.  (masta), , Panticapaeum � common Ir mast �drunk, tipsy�, �bitter�, OE. māst �the biggest�. 138. masteira), the wife of king Leukanor, the mother of  (see) � OE. māst �most�, āre "honour". 139. mastousTanais, Panticapaeum �OE. māst "the biggest". 140.  meuakos), Tanais � Os. mevä �work�, Kabard myve �stone�, OE mǽw "a mew". 141. mougisagosOlbia � The origin of the word from Os mugǽ "seed" and sag "deer", as considered Abayev, is acceptable but most likely it is based on OE mūga "heap of grain" (akin Old Sw mōghe "the people, the community") and saku "dispute, war" or saga / sagu "story, a saga," because similar name is used by Strabo for Germanic tribe of Mugilones (Gr Μουγίλωνες , Lat Mūgilōnēs). 142. nabadzos), Tanais � according to V. Abaeyv the word is like Old Ir. nāv-āza "pilot of the ship", but the practice of navigation at the Sarmatians is doubtful. Maybe Kurd. nab "clean" and aza "bold" are better? 143. namgenosOlbia � "eminent" (Os. nomgin from nom �name�). 144.  (narakon stoma), one of the branches in the delta of the Danube according to ancient historians � good explanation may be "narrow branch" combining Os naräg "narrow" and Gr  "mouth, throa". 145. nausgosTanais � �novice� (Os. näwäg). 146. (nixekos), Gorgippia � Os. nix �forehead� or better Tat. nikax �marriage�. 147.  ksarthanosOlbia by Latyshev � sure the same as  (see Scythian Onomasticon). Turk čortan/šortan (Chuv çărttan) �pike� (fish).. 148. ksarthamos), Olbia � see previous. 149.  kse:ssagaros), Olbia � Chuv č�� �dodger, sly�, sukkăr �blind�. 150.  (ksobas), Panticapaeum � J. Harmatta compares the name with the Av xšaob "to come in an excited state". Perhaps the name has the same origin as the  (See Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon), and means "a singer" (OE scop). 151.  (odatis) female name � V. Abayev explained how "good creation" (Old Ir hu-dātā). Splitting the word into two parts, we can find a number of explanations (eg Chuv atte "of daddy" těs "genus, species, shape," tus "favorite" etc) 152.  odiardosTanais � Os. od �soul�: �soul filled by ard� (see )? OE. wōd � jealousy, rage � and eard � nature, fate�. 153.  (olthakos) according to Plutarch a prince of an ancient people Dandariens � V. Abayev explained as "ultra-fast" (Os wäl "top" and täx "fast"). The of presence aspirate in the name makes others prefer � OE. āl "fire, fire", đæc "roof of the house" or oll "abuse, insulting" and đaccian "to beat". 154. olkabas), accordind to Appian a Scythian, the end of the 2nd cent.AD. � Os wäl "top", käf "fish", OE oll "abuse, insulting", cāf "cheery, bold" (similar Germanic words mean "abuse" too). 155.  omrasmakos), Tanais � �� Aba�ev explain�� the word by means of Av rasman "military convoy squad", which has no match in the Ossetian language. Attempts to decipher the word on the basis of many other languages have failed. The word can be explained by the Germanic languages as a "sour taste". F. Kluge restored the Teutonic word that has matches in modern Germanic languages as *am(p)ra "sour" (primarily acid plant � Ger Ampfer "sorrel", OE ampre "acid"). The words of this root are present in other Indo-European and Finno-Ugric languages (Slavic omela "mistletoe", Lit. amalas "mistletoe" OInd ambla "sour", Lat. amarus "bitter", Mord umbrav "sorrel", Mari umla "hops", Komi omra "angelica"). The second partial word refers to the first one meaning "taste" (Grmc *smakka "taste", Eng. smack "taste", Ger. schmecken "to be delicious"). The Finno-Ugric languages have no words of this root, so the Finno-Ugric origin of the name is discarded. 156. oksardo:dzis), Tanais � many Iranian aškor/aškor �open, clear� and toza �clear�, absent in Ossetian. It is doubtful, obviously, the word has Chechen origin (ōzar "pull" from ōza "to pull, drag" and dōza "border". 157. oronte:s), Olbia � Chuv ar "a man", ant "an oath". 158.  (oroferne:s), Panticapaeum � this name once again has the root -farn-, but the combination with the Av aurvant "fast, bold, strong" seems to be doubtful, although anything suitable for decoding the word was not found in other languages. It is also unclear which Orofern is meant. It is known famous Orofern, a king of Cappadocia in Asia Minor. Nebuchadnezzar's commander Holofernes is known from the Bible (the Book of Judith). All this goes against that the name Orofern can be Scythian or Sarmatian. 159. osmarakos), Tanais � Os osä "wife", marun "to kill", Lit asmuo "face, a person", ragas "horn". 160. ospinmadzos), Olbia � "iron arm" (Afg ospêna, Os fsän "iron", many Ir bazu "arm", Kurd maze "axle, shaft". 161. Tanais) � Hung össz �common�, egesz �whole, intact". 162.  (ovara) , Tanais � "a vagabond" (Afg. avāra, Tal awərə, Kurd êper� and other Iranian). Similar word has not found in Ossetian.. 163.  (ovardane:s), the name the river Kuban � not "a big river", as suggested V. Abayev (Os urux "wide" and don "water, river"), but rather "a turbulent river" (Kabard. uer "stormy, violent"). The Kuban flows on the former territory of Adyghe (ancestors of the modern-day Adyghe, Circassian and Kabardinians), so had to have a Circassian name. Now it is called by Adyghe Psyzh. The name "violent" fits good for a mountain river which is the upper Kuban. The second part of the word may be Kabard denag "boundary", possibly earlier "frontier". 164.  ouakso:dzakos), Olbia � Chuv khăçakh "sabrefish" is good for the second part of the name. Fish names in onomasticon are fairly common (see also Scythian onamastikon). For the first part of the word, perhaps Chuv ăv "to rub, grind" fits. 165. Olbia) � proposed by V. Abayev Av baēvar "a lot" for the decryption of the name is good, but there are doubts about taking here Chuv kxumä "arable land". Nothing more appropriate for the first part of the word was not found but common in many European languages word umb-/omb-/amb- "around, near, near" (PIE *ambhi, Lat. amb-, Old Gr , OE ymb(e). The second part of the word is obviously containes ethnonym "Avar" 166.  ourgbadzos), Olbia � V. Abayev explained the nam� as "a having wolf shoulder" (Os wärg, Yazg warğ, Yagn urg �wolf� and common Ir boz "shoulder, wing"). However Turkic origin of the name is possible too, if it containes an ethnonym in combination with Old Turk. baz "a foreigner, an outsider" (see  167.  (ourgoi), according to Strabo one of Sarmatian tribes � Herodotus mentioned the tribe of in northwestern Scythia. There were in Scythia several similar ethnic names � Ugrians, Ogurs, Oguz, etc. It is not clear whether it is a different ethnic group (Turkic, Finno-Ugric) or different versions of the same ethnonym, and later transferred to a different ethnic group. Old-Turk. oğrï, Tat. ugry "a thief". Cf  168.  (oustanos), Tanais � Lit austinis "woven". 169.  (outafarne:s), , "deity", an inscription on the amulet from the Kuban region � V. Abayev proposed to look for something suitable to the sense farn "grace", for example Os wac "word", but there are phonetic difficulties. Chuvash has the word vută meaning "a mermaid." When also remember Cuv parne "a gift", the amulet can have important protection of water. 170. okoardzane:s), Tanais � the word can be decrypted uby means of the Chuvash language � arçyn "a man" that is well suited for the name, the first partial word can have a wide selection � akka "sister", aka "plowing" uxă "bow", etc. 171.  � Kabard eğejaķue �a teacher". An artiste Akhedjakova is known in Russia. 172.  (pairisades), names of several Bosporan kings � Chuv payǎr "own, proper", sut, sutǎ "trade", Sattus � old Chuvash name. 173.  (pairisalos), Panticapaeum by Alemani � Chuv payǎr "own, proper" sulǎ "ferry". Such property is very significant in the city on the coast of the Kerch Strait 174. (pantikape:ion), Panticapaeum a Greek city and port on the site of the modern-day Kerch) � the explanation of the name of the Greek colony is generally accepted as "fishy way" (Af., Yazg. pand, Shugn. půnd, Saryk. pond, Os. fändag "path, way", Afg kab, Os käf "fish"). But the Greek origin of the name of the Greek colony is possible too, whath would be logical (cf. Gr  "sea") 175.  parspanakos), Olbia � Turkic pars/bars "ounce, panther" snd * baňaq "dung, manure". 176.  (pataikos), Gorgippia � Lit pataikos "adulatory". . 177.  (pateis), Tanais by Knipovich � OIr pati- �lord�, Lit pati �wife�. 178.  (pe:rakos), Olbia � �wool carder� (Os. piräg). 179.  (pidanos), Tiras by Latyshev,  (fidanos), Tanais byKnipovich � ( Os. fidon �fatherly�, Kurd. fěde �daring, courage�, OE. pǽđđan �to pass�. 180. pideisOlbia (pidos), Berezan' � Os. fyd, fidä �father�. See also previous. 181.  (pitofarnake:s), Tiras by Latyshev) � OE fitt �fight� and farnian �to have luck�). 182.  (porata), the river Prut � Os ford �a great river�, Chuv *parat "valley". 183.  (pourthake:s), (pourtauos) � Os fyrt/furt �a son�; Kurd purt �hair� + Tal taka �goat� (���������� �����); Chuv purtă �an axe� + aka �an ancient plough�. 184.  (rabaig), graffiti � Os räwäg "light, not heavy". 185. radamasisPanticapaeum � Difficult case. V. Abayev, a priori considering this and subsequent names to have Iranian origin, claimed that all they "do almost certain" their origin from the Old Ir fratama "the first". Just restored form itself is in doubt, but also neither Ossetian nor other Iranian languages have a word of of this root. Widely represented in onomasticon morpheme could not disappear in a language. We must look for another explanation. There is among the languages of the people, which would be possible descendants of the Sarmatians, Hung érdemes �celebrated, praised� the most similar to the subject name. Meaning of the word is quite suitable for the name, and the small phonetic discrepancy can be explained by the Hellenization of the name. 186.  (radameistos), Radamistus, Tanais � Hung érdem "merit, dignity", ijeszt �to frighten�. See  187.  (radamofourtas), Tanais � Hung érdem "merit, dignity", portya �(robber) raid�. See  188.  (radamsadis), Bosporan king, the 4th cen. � Hung érdem "merit, dignity", szed �to collect�. See  189. radamfo:n), Olbia � Hung érdem "merit, dignity", fon �to braid, spin�. See  190.  (rapake:s) � Giving this name V. Abayev fails to specify who or what it is but only connected it with Old Ir. rapaka "he who is the support, support". Veps. ropak "big" and Mari ropka "fast." are also well-suited for the name. 191. Rasparaganus, king of Roksolans and Sarmats, the 2nd cen. � complicated name, open to interpretation. V. Abaev proposed to deciphering Os ra-fsäräg "the one who comes". The first partial word ras can be considered as a modification of Lat rex "king", but the interpretation can be also made by semantically related OE rǽs "assault", faru, fōr "campaign, the raid", gān "to go". 192.  (rassogos), Tanais � to Os. räsog "transparent" or to Hung. rossz "bad" and szag "smell" (the whole "stinky")? Rather Hungarian origin should be admitted, since the origin from the Ossetian word would not require a doubling of the consonant 193.  (rathago:sos)Olbia) �. OE. hrađe �fast� and gōs �gander�. 194. (raksoisakos), Tanais � �a piercing of deer � (Os. räxoj-sag). 195. Respondial, Alanian king in Gaul, 406 � OE refsan, pespan �to blame� and deall "the proud, famous" ("the blaming pride"). 196.  (reukanaloi), Sarmatian tribe � V. Abayev saw in the name the metathesis of  and explained it as "light Alans" (Old Pers rauča, Os ruxs "light"). This assumption confirms possible correspondence between the ethnonyms Engls and Alans (angloi → aŋloi → alŋoi → alanoi), the more the first part of the word could be considered as OE reoc "wild, savage". See also  197.  (reuksinaloi), Sarmatian tribe � perhaps this is a variant of  (see) 198.  (reusinalos), a son of Pairisal, Panticapaeum by Alemani � because the name of Pairsal was decrypted by means of Chuvash, his son's name must also have a match in the Chuvash language. Perhaps it includes Senelĕ, Chuvash pagan name for which, as the definition of nothing better than ǎrǎm "magic" is not found. On the other reversal, the name may be a modification of the name of the tribe Revksinals (��. ). 199.  (ro:ksane:), female name, Panticapaeum by Latyshev) � Av. raoxšana, Os. ruxs �light�). 200.  (roksalanoi) Sarmatian tribe � White Alans (Old Pers rauča, Os ruxs "light"). See also  . 201.  (sagadares), a tribe on Danube, Sadagarii (according to Jordanes) � unlikely "having deer" (Os dar-sag), one can consider Hung szakad "to flow" and ár "a stream, flow". On the other side there is a common Türkic sadaq, saadaq, sagdaq "quiver". OE sāda �cord, rope�, gār �spear�. 202. Sagaris (������), Saggarius, by Pliny the Elder � the name is identical to Scythian battle ax weapon (OE. sacu "war" and earh "arrow"). If the name is not referred to weapons, it can be decoded by means of other languages � Cuv sukkăr "blind", Kurd. sakar "simple." The explanation of V.Abaeva "where deer are" is not natural. 203.  (saios),Sarmatian tribe � maybe to Chuv suy �to lie, fudge� or săy �regale�, but Kurd sayî "cleat" firs better for tribe name.. 204.  (saitafarnos), king of Saioi � OE sǽta "estate, dwelling", farnian "to have luck". 205.  (sakdeos), Tanais � �demon-deer� (Old Os. sag-dew). 206. Sambida, Alanian ruler in Gaul, 440 � OE. sam �together�, bīdan ����������, �����. Maybe better OE name Betta from beorht, briht "bright, shiny" (according to F. Holthausen) and same "as, similar". 207.  (sanagos), Olbia by Latyshev � according to V. Abaeva san(a) "wine" is "Scythian-Thracian" word. Similar words appear in some Caucasian languages (Os sänä, Adyg sanə, Kabard sane "intoxicating drink made from honey". 208.  � according to V. Abayev �a wine-drinker�. See previous. 209. Sangibanus (Alanian king in Gaul, the 5th cen) � OE sengen �to burn�, bān �bone, leg�. 210.  (saneia), female name, Panticapaeum � perhaps san(a) "wine" does not fit for female name, maybe �beautyful� (Cf. Chuv săn �face, appearance�). 211.  (Panticapaeum) � from Os. sänä �wine� or from Chuv. sunăm �wish, desire�? 212.  (saperde:s), a name of fish according to Hesyhius of Alexandria, the 5th cen. � Who were considered Hesyhius under name "Scythians" in the 5th cen AD is difficult to ascertain and the word might help answer this question, but the name of a reliable interpretation of fish name has not been found. Most similar-sounding names of fish are present in the Baltic languages: Lit. šapalas "chub" and Let. sapals "a kind of carp" (M. Vasmer) related OInd saphara "a kind of carp" (Cyprinus sophore). It is also possible also the Iranian origin of the word, which could contain a definition of "white" (Afg. saped, Pers. safed, Tal. sipi, Kurd. spî). It is possible that the name of the fish is the contamination of the Baltic and Iranian words. 213.  (sarakos), Tanais � it is not necessarily to Os. sär �head�. Similar words exist in many Iranian languages, but you can also find another explanation of the name, such as "mean, greedy" (Afg sarax) or "red" (Let sarkans). 214.  (saraksasos), Olbia � Chuv surăkh �sheep� and săs �to bit, kill�. 215.  (saraparai),Thracian tribe by Strabo, the 1st cen AD � Os. säräppar "head-thrower" good for the tribe of "thugs" as it was described by Strabo. 216.  � origin of the name is vaguely, see the chapter"Sauromats". 217. saronthe name of locality on the Borysthenes (the Dniepr River) according to Ptolemy � Let. sārņi "mud, bog, swamp". 218.  (saruke:), female name � ���. sarig "sad, worried"? 219.  (satrake:s), king of the Scythians populated the locality to the north of Sogdiana according to Arrian � Afg sutra �clean� and kas �face, a person�. 220.  (sauagaskos), Phanagoria � the name was explained by V. Abaev as "intact in the morning" (Os säw-ägas), but as a name  (see) existed, a partition of the word is wrongfully. Most likely this and the next neames have Turkic origin (Karach. sabaq, Tat. sabak, Tuv. savak, Chuv. sapak "stem, stalk"). The first part of the name may be derived from the Turkic as- "to hang" (Old Turk. askïn "hung", Tat asca "down", Tur. askı "hook, hanger". However, you can view also Cuv savăk "joy", then for the second part of the name can be good Chuv asǎkh "lewdness, debauchery". 221.  (savagos), Panticapaeum � Cuv savăk "joy". 222.  (Tanais) � Chuv savănăç �joy, fun�. 223.  (saudaratai), Sarmatian tribe � � dressed in black� ( Os. saw-dar-a-tä). 224. (saumakos), a Scythian, the leader of the rebellion in the Bosporan kingdom, the 2nd cen BC � Os. säwmag "morning" (attr). 225. origin of the name is vaguely, see the chapter"Sauromats". 226.  (seurakos), Phanagoria � perhaps the name has the same stem as  (see the chapter"Sauromats".). 227.  (siagos), Gorgippia � perhaps here and in the following words there are Ir stem siyah "black" (Kurd. sîyah, Afg. sijo), but also Kurd. se "a dog" and agos "a tramp" could be considered too. 228.  (siaos), Olbia � maybe Ir siyah and ab/av/ov "water". 229. (siavakos), Tanais � Krd sîyah �black� and waq �feeling�. 230.  (sio:maxos), Tanais by Knipovich � J. Harmatta translated the name as "dark-colored" because of alleged OIr. syāmaka-. Kurd max "(water) spring", Gr "fight", but good definitions to these words were not found. 231.  (sogos), Gorgippia, Tanais, Panticapaeum � V. Abaev proposed for to decryption Os sog "firewood". This word may have a common origin also Chuv sak "bench". But most likely the name should be associated with Afg, Pers. sag "a dog" (these words are present also in the Pamir languages). 232.  (sodzirsauos), Tanais) � according to V. Abaev the Ossetian language has a proper name Sozir perhaps it comes from Os sizär "an orphan", but there is nothing in the Ossetian language suitable for the second part of the word. Similar words to Os sizär meaning "an orphan" are present in the Finno-Ugric languages. Using them, the name can be translated as "beloved sister" (Finnish sisar, Veps. sizar, Mord sazor, Udm. Suzer "sister", Veps. suo, soo "to like, love", Fin sovelias "decenct"). 233.  (sorxakos), Olbia) � Ir surx/sorx "red". 234. sougdaia) the city in the Crimea, modern-day Sudak, founded 212 AD � Os suğdäg �holy�. 235.  (spadakos)the ruler ofSanigian tribe, Olbia by Latyshev � nothig better as Arm spitakots "a fibber" was not found. 236.  (spadine:s), the ruler of Aorsian tribe � the name can have Iranian stem meaning "white" (cf Balochi spētēn, Afg saped, Gil sêfid �white�). 237. . (spartakos, spartakus), names of some Bosporan kings � Afg spārtak "twig, vine". 238.  (stauakos), Tanais � �glorifying� ( Os. stawäg). 239.  (storane:), a female name � Ir stur/stor "great", Afg ana "grandmother". 240.  (stormais), Tanais � Ir stur/stor "great", Os mäj �moon�, Kurd mey �rush, reed�, Pers a.o.. maya �cattle". 241. (stosarakos), Tanais � Afg. sarax �avaricious, a miser�? 242.  (sturakos), Gorgippia � as for  (see) Iranian languages provide ample opportunities for decoding the name based on Ir. stur/stor �great�. 243.  (sturanos), Gorgippia � see previous. 244.  (sfarobais), Panticapaeum � �builder, stonemason� (OE. spær �gypsum, limestone� and býan �to buit�). 245.  (so:rakos), Panticapaeum � Os soräg "to pursue", Chuv surăkh "sheep". 246.  (so:xoubadzos), Olbia � doubtful "withered arm" (Os bazuk "arm, hand", xos "dry"), it is possible to take into account Cuv. sukha "gills" and puç �head�. 247.  (taroulon) � Turkic name, the second part of the word means "son" (Karach ulan and other Turkic). 248.  (tasios), a ruler of Roksolans at the end of the 2nd cen. BC � OE tæsan "to wound". 249.  (tirgatao:), female name � Let tirgotājs "tradesman". 250.  (fadiaroadzos), Tanais � there is in this and next words OE fadian �to rule, lead�. The second part of the name means "copper ax" (OE ær, ār "copper", æces "anax"). 251.  (fadinomos), Tanais � OE. fadian �to rule, lead�. and nama "name". 252.  (fadzinamos), Tanais � OE. fācian �to seek� and nama "name". 253.  (faldaranos), Tanais, by Knipovich � OE feld �field� and earn �an eagle� ( "steppe eagle"). 254.  (fandaradzos), Gorgippia � OE. fandian �totry� and racian �to rule, reign�. 255. faradosOlbia � Os fe-rad �got joy�, OE fǽr �danger�, fær �way, life� anf ād �fire�. 256.  (fardzeos), Olbia � �hospitable� ( Os. färzew) 257.  (farnagos), Olbia, Northern Caucasus � wide spread farn �luck�. See  258.  (farnake:s), Panticapaeum, Gorgippia, Tanais � see ,  259.  (farnakio:n), Panticapaeum, Gorgippia) � see,  260.  (farne:s), Panticapaeum � see,  261.  (farnodzartos), Tanais � see,  262.  (fe:danakos), Tanais � OE. fadian �to rule, lead�, and naca "ship". 263.  (fidonous), Tanais, Panticapaeum � �of father� ( Os. fidon). 264.  (fidas), Tanais, Panticapaeum � �father� ( Os. fidä). 265.  (fleimnagos),  (fleimnakos), Olbia � Old It *friyāna (?) � �darling�, better OE fliema �a fugitive, deserter� and nǽgan �to approach, attack�. See also . 266. (flianos) Olbia � OE fleon "to run off, away". 267.  (fodakos). Tanais, Phanagoria � according to M. Vasmer to Os. fudag �playful child�. 268.  (forgabakos), Tanais � to Os. fur-gewäg "a much consuming" or to OE fýr �fire�, bacan �stove, oven�, ga- prefix of participle �roasted by fire�. 269.  (fore:ranos), Tanais by Knipovich � J. Harmatta deciphered the name by hypothetical Old Ir *paru-aryana as "a conquered many Aryans". Better Eng fore-ran. 270.  (foriauos), Tanais, Latyshev � with OE. fōr �way� and eawan �to show� the name means "a guide". 271.  (foros), Tanais � to Os. fur "a ram" or OE. fōr "a farrow". 272.  (fosakos), Tanais byKnipovich � Os. fus "a sheep"? Maybe better OE. fūs �ready, urgent, noble� and āc 1.�oak", 2. �ship of oak�. 273.  (fourtas), Tanais) � Os. furt "a son" or OE fort "forth". 274.  (fuske:), seaside town east of the mouth of the Dniester according to Ptolemy � V. Abaev suggests that now at this place is a small village "Dry Liman" and explains the name of the town from Os xusk "dry, barren land". This word is available in all Iranian languages, but most likely the town is named after the Roman general Cornelius Fuscus, which was at war with the Dacians not far from these places. Lat. fuscuc "dark." 275.  (xanake:s), Panticapaeum � Turkic qonaq "a guest". Cf.� . 276.  (xaraks) the name of locality in the Crimea according to Ptolemy � V. Abaev explained local place name from the name of the donkey in the Ossetian language (xäräg). However, there is reason to believe this and the next two names of Greek origin (Gr. χαραξ "engraving"). 277.  (xaraksenos), Olbia � Gr χαρά "joy", ξένος "strange,fremd". See also . 278.  (xarakstos), Tanais � Gr χαρά "joy", τοσ "year". See also . 279.  (xoargaros), Tanais � Kurd xaver/xewer "sun" and ger "disk, ring". 280.  (xoarfadios), Tanais � Kurd hevor �hind, doe� and feda �victim�. 281.  (xodainos) � Kurd xuda �god� and îna �faith�. 282.  (xodekios), Gorgippia � Os. xodäg "funny". 283.  (xomeuos), Tanais � OE hām �home� and æw "law, customs, marriage, wife". 284. (xoroathos), Tanais � Cuv khura �dark� and ut �horse�. 285.  (xoraksathos), Tanais � Chuv khurakh �a thief� and sut �to sell�. 286.  (xorsamantis), a Massaget, spearman of Belisarius, the 6th cent. � the name the root khors/hors, presented in many languages meaning deity, harvest, good. It is a special topic for research. The words of this root are very common in many languages and mean "bread", "a sheaf", "millet", "a broom"etc: Ar kurs �scone�, Ukr, Blr. korzh "scone", Fin kyrsä �bread�, Veps kürz �fritter�, Arm. xurdz, Kurd gurz, Os kyris �sheaf�, Chuv kurăs �piece of bast�, xuraç �food�, Komi korös�, Mansi kuras� �a broom�, Ger Hirse �millet�, Let garsa "goat-wort", Aegopodium podagraria (umbrella edible plant), Rus (dial) koros, korost �stack bundles of flax�, Gr koros �saturation�, OE kors �rush� (from Celtic), Let cers �bush�. With the replacement of r to l: Gr  �round bread�, Hung köles �millet�, Let kulis �a sheaf�, Sl kols� (Ukr, Rus. kolos etc "an ear"), maybe Afg kulča �cookie�. This also should include the names of gods: Latin goddess of vegetation Ceres, East Slavic god Khors. Maybe also Ukr koryst', Os xorz �good�, Rus khorosgyi, Fer Horst �brushwood� and Rus �khvorost "brushwood". With such a variety of options to decipher the name of the is difficult. 287.  (xouarsadzos), Olbia � Os xwar �grain� and sazun �to plant�. 288.  (xouvaros), Olbia� Kurd xov "a savage" and nêr "male, he". 289.  (xofarnos), Tanais � the name has the root farn. See  290. (xofrasmos), Tanais � Kurd xof �faer� and resm ����appearance. 291.  (xo:dardzos), Olbia) � Os. xwäd-arc " equipped with a spear". 292. (Tanais) � Os. xodujnag "funny", Kurd xudan "host" +-ak. 293. xo:ndiakos), Theodosia � Gr "servant", ,  "to pour". 294. pseudartake:), the name of sacred place in Scythia, the 6th cen � Gr ψευδής "false", Αρτακη "an area in the Sea of Marmara". 295.

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