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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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Alan-Anglo-Saxon Onomasticon


CBI – STRUVE V.V. (Ed.) 1965. Korpus bosporskikh nadpisey – (In Russian) – Corps of Bosporus Inscriptions. Moscow-Leningrad. Nauka.

This onomasticon was compiled in order to demonstrate how many names of the Scythian-Sarmatian time can be etymologized using the English language, but not all of the names here may have Old English origin. Nevertheless, even if those names are just a few, there is already strong evidence for the presence of Anglo-Saxons in the northern Black Sea coast in prehistoric times. And apparently, these names exist.

Ababa, Hababa (the mother of Roman Emperor Maximianus, the Alanian woman) – V.I. Abayev explained the name as "Good weaver" on the basis of the OS. wafun "to weave" and Old Iran. *hu- "good", which seems far-fetched. The last word is absent in the modern Iranian languages and existed only in compound words of Ancient Iranian. Obviously, the word fell into disuse for a long time, so it is highly doubtful that it could be present in the language of the Sarmatians. It is noteworthy that Maximianus’ father was a Goth Mickey. In this regard, the name can be considered to be of Old English origin, although making the final choice is difficult. Such variant can be considered: OE hebba "the beginning, the rise” (in the sense of the beginning of the family) but it is likely a compound word which consists of OE ǽw having several meanings, including "laws, customs, marriage, wife”, and āwa “always, forever”. In addition, the Old English personal name existed, recorded as Eawa.

Αγαθιρσ (agathirs), Αγαθιρσοι (agatirsoi) – according to Herodotus Agathyrsos was a son of Heracles and gave rise to the tribe of the Agathyrsians – OE đyrs (thyrs) "a giant demon, a magician" is well suited for both the name and the ethnonym. For the first part of the name, we find OE ege "fear, terror", and the whole means "terrible giants or demons". However, OE āga "owner", āgan "to have, take, receive, possess" suit phonetically better. Then the ethnonym can be understood as "having giants". Below, we decipher the ethnonym the Thyssagetai (see Θυσσαγεται) as a nation of giants in the north of Scythia. Thus, we can suppose that the Agathyrsians subdued the Thyssagetai

ακινακεσ (akinakes), a short, iron Scythian sword – the name of the sword is sometimes associated with the Iranian word kynk "sword". OE ǽces "an ax" and nǽcan "to kill" suit better.

Αλαζωνεσ (aladzo:nes), the Alazonians, the tribe inhabiting the territory of the Dniester above the Callipidai, – the name can be translated as “the born in a shirt” (αλαζωνεσ – OE hāla “afterbirth, placenta”, sunu "a son").

Αλανοι (alanoi), the name of a tribe of Alans – from Old Pers aryana- "Aryas", Os allon? However, this ethnonym can be viewed as tainted "Angles" (angloi → aŋloi → alŋoi → alanoi). Cf. Ρευκαναλοι.

Αλανορσοι (alanorsoi), the name of a tribe of Alans – "the white Alans" (Os ors "white")? Rather, "Riding Alans" (OE hors "a horse").

Αμαγη (amage:), Sarmatian queen – the Ossetian language has no match, Old Iran. ama "strong, powerful". OE hām "house, home" and āga "an owner, proprietor", āge “ownership, possession” suit perfectly for the name of a queen phonetically and by meaning. Obviously, the name should be understood as "mistress of home".

Αναχαρσισ (anaxarsis), the Scythian famous traveler and sage – the name has many interpretations. V.I. Abayev explains it as "safe" (Av ana-hvarti, Os änäxwälc). However, Anacharsis was not a Scythian. It can be concluded from the phrase of Herodotus: "Now the region of the Euxine upon which Dareios was preparing to march has, apart from the Scythian race, the most ignorant nations within it of all lands: for we can neither put forward any nation of those who dwell within the region of Pontus as eminent in ability nor do we know of any man of learning having arisen there, apart from the Scythian nation and Anacharsis". (HERODOTUS, IV, 46 ). Anacharsis was the son of Gnuros, the son of Lycos, the son of Spargapeithes (see Σπαργαπειθησ). All three last names can be decrypted by means of Old English. Then, an Old English match must also be found for the name Anacharsis: Old Saxon. āno "without", OE hors/hyrs "horse" (ie, "Horseless").

αντακαιοι (antakaioi), a large boneless fish – the word can not be convincing decoded. In accordance with the characteristics of the fish, the prefix could mean "no, without". The Germanic languages have such words (an/on, OE un). Then the root would have the meaning "a bone". Theoretically, an initial form for Dutch tak "branch" and Ger Zacke "a prong", the words without of certain etymology, can suit here when akin English word was lost.

Αρθιεμανοσ (artiemanos), Berezan’ the interpretation of the name by V.I. Abaev as "a spearman" (Os arcä "a spear", Av manu "a man") is doubtful because of the phonetic mismatch. The Greek letter θ is reflected just as aspirated th in most cases, therefore OE earđ "plowing" or eorđe "land " and mann "a man" could be taken to explain the name as "a tiller".

Αριαντασ (ariantas), the name of a Scythian king – OE ārian "to honor".

Αριαπειθες (ariapeithes), a Scythian king, the husband of the daughter of Teres and Opoie, the father of Skyl (see Σκυλησ), Oktamasad (see Οκταμασαδησ), and Orik – OE ār „honor, dignity, glory”, pǽđ „path, trail”. The ruler of the Agathyrsians Spargapeites lived at the same time (see Σπαργαπειθησ). He killed Ariapeithes.

Αριι (arii), the Sarmatian tribe – widespread tribal name among Indo-Europeans. It can have the same origin as the OE ār "honor".

Αριφαρνησ (arifarnes), according to Diodor of Sicily “the name of the king of the tribe Θατεισ”) – the root farn occurred in the ephygrafy of the Black Sea Area repeatedly. There is farn/xvarna- „divine force”, „celestial grace” in Iranian mythology, but the Ossetic word farn means „rest”, Afg parnā “sleepy, inert”. The words of this root are also present in the Germanic and other languages. The leader of Goths Farnobius is known in history. F. Holthausen gave also the Gothic proper names Farnoin and Farnulf (HOLTHAUSEN f. 1934: 27) and explained OE farnian “to have happiness” as a loan word from OIc (farna-sk) (HOLTHAUSEN f. 1974: 98). In general, Germanic languages have the words of this root, which means „fern” (a kind of plant – Ger Farn). According to folk legends, the flower of the fern brings good luck. Sanskrit purna means “full”. The Chuvash language has the word parne, which means “a present, gift”, and purăn “to live”. Thus, we could suppose that the word of the root parn/farn/purn having the meaning „happiness, peace of mind, grace, favor” existed in many languages of Eastern Europe. Therefore, one has to consider the possibility of both Iranian, and Germanic, and other origins of similar names. As the first part of Arifarnes’ name cannot be good explicated by means of other languages except Old English (OE. ār, āre „honor”), we may reason to translate the name as somewhat similar to “honorable fortune”.

Αροασιοσ (aroasiuos), the father of Godosauos (see Γοδοσαυοσ) OE āre "honor, glory", ease "cup".

Αρσακομασ (arsakomas), according to Lucian, a Scythian who wooed the Bosporan princess Mazaya – OE ears "arse", eacen "grown, big".

Ασπακοσ (aspakos), father of Gosakos, Tanais – names with the root asp are often found, but their origin can be different. Determinants may be other components of the name and other factors. In this case, the name of Aspakos, like his son (see Γωσακοσ), are better deciphered by means of Old English, if you keep in mind OE æsp «aspen» and āc "oak".

Βαδαγοσ (badaγos), the strategos in Olbia, the son of Iezdrados (see. Ιεζδραδοσ); Βαδακησ, the strategos in Olbia, the son of Radampsonosos (see Ραδαμψων)– the names of their fathers are deciphered using the Old English language, so these names should also have Anglo-Saxon origin (OE beadu "struggle, war", āc "oak"). Cf. Βιδακησ, Βωρακοσ

Βανασ (banas), Panticapaeum – OE. bana "killer".

Beorgus, the Alanian king who invaded Italy in V century AD – OE beorg 1. "a mountain, hill", 2. "protection", 3. "asylum".

Βιδακησ (bidake:s), Panticapaeum – OE. bid "strength", āc "oak". Cf. Βωρακοσ, Βωρακοσ.

Βορυσθενεοσ, Borysthenes, the Dnieper River – A.K. Shaposhnikov asserts that the name has nothing to do with the Iranian languages and that attempts to give it an interpretation on the material of the Indo-Iranian or Slavic languages "look too artificial". He himself gives the Greek etymology, also very doubtful (SHAPOSHNIKOV A.K. 2005: 39). The name can be interpreted more faithfully by means of Old English – OE bearu, Gen bearwes "a forest", đennan „to expand, extend”. i.e. the name of the river can be explained as "forested".

Βοστακε (bostake), the son of Tyn (see Θυνε), the brother of Dokion (see Δοκιων), Eltigen, Latyshev, CBI – OE beost „colostrum, beestings”, eacen "grown". Brothers' names are semantically related.

Βουδινοι (budinoi) Boudinoi, rather, Woudinoi, the people who lived, according to Herodotus, in the country, overgrown with various trees – a satisfactory interpretation of the word is so far not found. By the meaning and phonetic OE widu, wudu “tree, wood", Eng wooden approach perfectly. The word wuden is not found in Old English, but according to the laws of English grammar, it could exist and mean "forest".

Βραδακοσ (bradakos), Panticapeum – OE brād "broad", āc "oak", acas, ǽces “axe”.

Βωρακοσ (bo:rakos), Gorgippia – OE. *bor "high" (MLG. bor), āc "oak". Cf. Βραδακοσ, Βιδακησ.

Γ’αστεισ (gasteis), Γαστεισ, Γαστεησ, Gorgippia, Panticapaeum – V.I. Abayev connects these names with the word guest which forms are present in many Slavic and Germanic languages (Goth gast-s "a guest, stranger", OE gǽst), but similar word is not fixed in the Iranian languages. The second meaning of English words 1. "spirit, soul, life”, 2. "a demon."

Γνυροσ (gnuros), the son of Lykos, the father of Anacharsis – as Shaposhnikov asserts, the name has no features as of Indo-Iranian and Eastern-Iranian origin (SHAPOSHNIKOV A.K. 2005, 39), but cf. OE gnyrran "to grind". Akin Germanic words mean "to roar, growl." These senses do not seem suitable for a name, but derived nouns from these verbs could be the name of a beast. Ukrainian, Belorussian, Russian, Polish words knur, knur mean "a male pig". Moreover, in the same languages, as well as in Slovak and Lusatian, there are words close to the Greek form of the word (Ukr., Rus. knoroz, Blr. knorez, Slk. kurnaz, Pol. kiernoz, Up.-Lus. kundroz – all "male pig"). In the etymological dictionaries of the Ukrainian and Russian languages, explanations of the origin of all these words are considered unsatisfactory, not quite clear or onomatopoeic (A. VASMER MAX. 1967: 264-265 and A. MELNYCHUK O.S., Ed. 1985: 474) as a corresponding root is absent in the Slavic languages. It can be assumed that in Old English there was the word gnyr "boar, wild boar" and it was borrowed by the Slavs in this sense. Thus, the name of the king's grandson could mean "wild boar". Cf. Θυσκεσ. How the Slavic languages have got also the Greek form of the word, is necessary to find out, because such a word is absent in the Greek language. Perhaps, in the language of the Greeks who inhabited Ukraine in Scythian times, it existed, being borrowed from the neighboring Anglo-Saxons.

Γοδοσαυοσ (godosauos) – proposed by V. Abayev “black thinking” (Os ğud „thought” and saw „black”) is far phonetic. Perheps the name is compilled by OE god "god", ōs "pagan god", ǽw "law, religion".

Γωαρ (go:ar), the Alanian leader in Gaul at the beginning of the 5th century. – OE gear "protection, weapon". See Eochar.

Γωδιγασοσ (go:digasos), Tanais – „good thinker”? (OS. ğud „thought” and igas „intact, safe”). Better "godly fright, horror" (OE god "god" and egesa "fear, fright, horror").

Γωσακοσ (go:sakos), the son of Aspakos (see. Ασπακοσ), Tanais – OE. gōs «goose» і æg «egg».

Δαδαιος (dadaios), the father of Drobolus (see Δροβολουσ) – OE dǣda "offender, perpetrator".

Δαναρασμακος (danarasmakos), the son of Odiard (see. Οδιαρδοσ), Tanais, Latyshev – OE. đān "moist", "wetland", ear "lake", smæcc "taste, smell".

Δοκιων (dokio:n), the son of Fin (see Θυνε), the brother of Bostak (see Βοστακε). Eltigen, Latyshev, CBI – OE doc “bastard” eanian “to yean”. Brothers' names are semantically related.

Δροβολουσ (drōbolous), the son of Dadai (see Δαδαιος), Kerch, the 4th century BC. Latyshev – OE đrowiam "to endure, suffer", lu:s "louse".

Ηλμανοσ (e:lmanos), Olbia, Vasmer – OE el “strange”, mann "a man".

Eochar, the Alanian king in Armorica (north-west France) – proposed by G. Miller explanation of the names as “he who eats millet” (Os jäw "millet", xwärun "to eat") has to be decisively thrown. It is far from phonetically and absolutely does not fit for the king’s name. OE eoh "a horse" and ār "a messenger, herald, apostle" suit best of all. However, Eochar and Γωαρ (see) could be the same person.

Θαβεισ (thabeis) Panticapeum, female name – OE. đeowe “maid”.

Θυνε (thyne), the son of Mastaros (see Μασταρος), the father of Dokion (see Δοκιων) and Bostak (see Βοστακε). Eltigen, Latyshev – OE đynne "skinny, thin".

Θιαρμακοσ (thiarmakos), Tanais – OE đeor «ignition» macian «to make».

Θυσκεσ (thuskes), Olbia – Os tusk’a "a boar" which derived from the Turkic čočqa "a pig". Cf. Γνυροσ. OE tūsc "a fang" of unclear origin can be considered too.

Θυσσαγεται (thussagetai), the Thyssagetai, one of the folks in Northern Scythia mentioned by Herodotus, or Thyrsagetae (by Valery Flaccus) – V.I. Abayev explains this name as "fast deer" (Pers, Kurd. tūr "rabid"), Os sag "a deer". The presence of the morpheme getai/ketai (Μασσαγεται, Ματυκεται, Μυργεται) in the names of several tribes is noteworthy. In addition, the Thracian tribes Getae (Γεαται) are known in history. We can suppose that this word means "people". The closest to it is the Chuv kĕtỹ "a flock, herd". Then Thyssagetai were "unruly people" (OE đyssa "rowdy”). If the form of Valery Flaccus is more correct, as it is likely since it echoes the name of the Agathyrsians. (see Αγαθιρσ, Αγαθιρσοι), then the Thyrsagetae means "the people of giants and wizards" (O. Eng đyrs "a giant, demon, wizard").

Ιδανθιρσοσ (idantрirsos), the Scythian king – OE eadan "performed, satisfied” and đyrs "a giant, demon, wizard".

Ιεζδραδοσ (iedzdrados), Olbia –Abayev displays the word out of Os izäd "deity." Instead, we can see in the name OE. đræd "thread, wire”, while the first part of the name semantic approach OE īse(r)n "iron, of iron", derived from Old Turkic jerz (later jez) "copper". See "The Names of Metals in the Turkic and Indo-European Languages".

Ιωδασ (io:das), Panticapaeum (Latyshev) – the possible origin of the Os od "soul ", if i is the article, according to Abayev. OE jeđe and eađe "light and pleasant". Since this root in the next word is semantically well suited to the meaning “taste”, we may take this variant.

Ιωδεσμαγοσ (iodesmagos), Olbia – explanation of the name by Abaev as "the breath of life" from Os od "soul " and äsmag "smell, breath looks good, but OE words jeđe/eađe "light, pleasant” and smæcc "taste, smell".

Κοφαρνοσ (kopharnos), Tanaïs – OE cofa "cave, hut" and ærn "home" suit good phonetically but the whole meaning is doubtful for a human name. Maybe OE “a cow” and the mentioned above farn suit better.

Λικοσ (likos), the son of Spargapeithes – by OE līc "body" could be called a man of large stature.

Λογχατησ (longchate:s), Lucian – Longhates was the friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) and helped him to kidnap a bride – the name can be explained as "long-haired" (OE long "long", hæd “hair”).

Μαζαια (madzaia), the daughter of Masteira and the king of the Bosporus Leukanorus – OE māse "titmouse."

Μακεντησ (makente:s), according Lucian, the friend of a Scythian Arsacomas (see Αρσακομας) – OE maca "a friend, companion" included, according to Holthausen in such Anglo-Saxon proper nouns as Meaca, Mackenthorp, Mackensen (A. HOLTHAUSEN F. 1974: 209, 216), and OE. ent "a giant".

Μαριαντης (mariante:s), the father of Arsakomas (see Αρσακομας) – OE mǣre "famous, great", ent "giant".

Μακεντησ, another friend of Arsacomas (see Αρσακομασ) helps him to kidnap a bride Masaia (see Μαζαια) – OE maca "comrade, fellow traveler", ent "a giant".

Μασταρος (mastaros), the father of Thyne (see Θυνε), Eltigen, Latyshev, CBI – OE māst “senior, elder, greatest”;

Μαστειρα (masteira), Alanian, a wife of the Bosporan king Leucanor (see Λευκανωρ), the mother of Madzaia (see Μαζαια), Lician – OE. māse "titmouse", tear "tear".

Ξοβας (ksobas), Pantucapeum, Σκοπασισ, the Scythian king, Herodotus – OE. scop „poet, singer”.

Μασταρουσ (mastarouos), the son of Mastos (see Μαστουσ), the son of Kotin (see Κοθυνασ), Panticapeum, Latyshev – in the epigraphy of the Northern Black Sea Coast there are several names containing the root mast, corresponding to Iranian words meaning "drunk". Abaev gives them the meaning of "angry", but avoids an explanation of the Anglo-Saxon name of Kotin. Their names and other similar ones are also deciphered using OE. māst “mast”.

Μαστουσ (mastous), Tanaïs, Panticapaeum – the explanation of the name out of the common Ir mast "intoxicated" is doubtful, though possible, OE māst "the biggest, the greatest" is better suited

Ματυκεται (matuketai), a Scythian tribe – assuming primary meaning "people" for Chuv kĕtỹ, OE mattuc, meattoc "hoe" can be taken for the first part of the word. In this case the name of a tribe can be interpreted as "farmers", which can correspond to agricultural Scythians mentioned by Herodotus

Μηθακον (me:thakon), Μηταγοσ (me:takos) – OE mattuc, meattoc „hoe”.

Μουγισαγοσ, (mougisagos), Olbia – The origin of the word from Os mugǽ "seed" and sag "deer", as considered Abayev, is acceptable but most likely it is based on OE mūga "heap of grain" (akin Old Sw mōghe "people, community") and saku "dispute, war" or saga / sagu "story, a saga," because the similar name is used by Strabo for the Germanic tribe of Mugilones (Gr Μουγίλωνες Lat Mūgilōnēs).

Μυργεται (murgetai), a Scythian tribe – no information about this tribe is not found yet, maybe its name is associated with common Iranian murg "a bird". Consistently linking morpheme getai/ketai with the meaning "people" we can take for the first part of the name OE mōr "swamp, heath", ie as a whole "bog people".

Οκτομασαδησ (oktomasade:s), the Scythian king, the son of Ariapeites (see Αριαπειθεσ), Scyl' brother (see. Σκυλησ ) – the names of the father and brother are deciphered by Old English, so this name can be associated with OE œhta «pursuer», adesa «an ax».

Ολθακοσ (olthakos), According to Plutarch the ruler of the tribe of Dandarians – Abaev explains how "superfast" (Os. wäl „high” and täx „fast”). Having an aspirant in the name makes one prefer OE. āl „fire” đæc „roof, house” or oll "swearing, insult" and đaccian "beat".

Ολκαβασ (olkabas), a Scythian, according to Appian, the end of the 2nd cen. AD – "Lord of the Fishes" (Os. wäl "from above", käf "fish"). Better OE oll "swearing", cāf "cheerful, courageous".

Ομρασμακοσ (omrasmakos), Tanaïs – Abayev explains the word on the basis of Av rasman "military convoy, troop”, which has no match in the Ossetian language. Attempts to decipher the words on the basis of many other languages have failed. The word can be explained by the Germanic languages as "sour taste". Kluge restores the Germanic word which is relevant in modern German as *am(p)ra "sour" (primarily refers to acid plant – Ger Ampfer "dock", OE ampre "acid"). The words of this root are present in the other Indo-European and Finno-Ugric languages (Russian omela “mistletoe”, Lit. amalas "mistletoe", OInd ambla "sour", Lat amarus "bitter", Mord umbrav "sorrel", Mari umla "hops”, Komi omra "angelica"). The second part of the word corresponds to the first perfect, it means "taste" (Gmc *smakka "taste", Eng smack "taste", Ger. schmecken "to be delicious"). The words of this root are not found in the Finno-Ugric languages, so the Finno-Ugric origin of the name is discarded.

Ορικοσ (orikos), the son of the Scythian king Ariapeites – OE wœrig "tired", wōrian „to walk”.

Ραδαμασισ (radamasis), Panticapeum, Latyshev – Abaev, a priori believing this and subsequent names to be of Iranian origin, claimed that they all "make almost unquestionable" their origin from the ancient Iranian fratama first. The restored form itself is in doubt, but in addition, there is no such root in Ossetian or other Iranian languages. Widely represented in the onomasticon, the morpheme could not disappear without a trace in the languages. We need to look for another explanation. Most likely radam is a complex word, the meaning of which can be understood from two semantically close OE. words read "red" and ām "red-hot iron". In Scythian times, it could be used for the name of steel, which is confirmed by the decoding of the names given below. The second part of the name can suit OE æsc "spear".

Ραδαμειστοσ (radameistos), Radamistus, Tanais, Latyshev – OE. read «red» and ām «red-hot iron», ȳst «storm». See Ραδαμασισ

Ραδαμουφορτισ (radamoufortis), the son of Triphon, Tanais, Latyshev – obviously the word should be divided into components so – radam-of-ourtos, in which there are OE words read "red", ām "red-hot iron" ("steel"?), æf "from" ord "the point, the spear". See Ραδαμασισ

Ραδαμσαδισ (radamsadis), Bosphorus king, 308 – 323 гг. – OE. read «red», ām «red-hot iron» («steel»?), sāda "string, ribbon". See Ραδαμασισ

Ραδαμψσων (radampso:n), the father of Badakos (see Βαδαγοσ), Olbia, Latyshev – OE. read «red», ām «red-hot iron», sionu epenthetic consonant p "bowstring". See Ραδαμασισ

Ραθαγωσοσ (rathagosos), Olbia – OE hrađe “fast, swift”, gōs "a goose". About people-geese see Σατρααβατησ in the Sarmatian Onomasticon.

Ρευκαναλοι (Reukanaloi), a Sarmatian tribe – V.I. Abayev saw in the name the metathesis of Ρευκαλανοι and explained it as "light Alans" (Old Pers rauča, Os ruxs "light"). This assumption confirms possible correspondence between the ethnonyms Engls and Alans (angloi → aŋloi → alŋoi → alanoi), the more the first part of the word could be considered as OE reoc "wild, savage".

sabar, alanian word, "oats" (ABAYAV V.I., 1965) – OSax haβaro “oats”.

σαγαρισ (sagaris), battle axe, the Scythian weapon – OE sacu "strife, war" and earh "an arrow".

Sadagarii, tribe on the Danube in alliance with the Alans and Scythians under the leadership of Candak, Jordan – OE. sāda "tape, rope", gār "spear".

Σαδαλον (sadalon) – good Iranian matches are not found. Maybe OE sadol "saddle" can be taken into consideration?

Σαδιμανοσ (sadimanos) – OE sǽd "sated, satiated" and mann "a man".

Σαιταφαρνησ (saitafarnes), Sarmatian ruler – OE sæta "dwelling, dweller" and farnian "to have luck" or fearn "fern".

Sambida, one of the leaders of the Gallic Alans (mentioned in 440). – OE. sam “together”, bīdan "to stay, wait, live". It is even possible that the second part of the word is a personal name Betta, which is conducted by Holthausen from OE. beorht, briht "brilliant", then for the first part of the word can suit OE same "like".

Sangibanus, according to Jordanes, the Alanian king in Gallia in the 5th c. – the explanation of V.I. Abaev as "possessing the power of hands" (Os cong, Pers čang "a hand") is not quite right phonetically. OE sengen "to burn" and bān "a foot, bone" are better.

Σαρυκη (saruke), a feminine name, Panticapaeum – to OE. sarig “sad, anxious”?

Σαυλιοσ (saulios), the son of Gnuros – apparently from OE sāwol "soul".

Σερεισ (sereis), theson of Fandaradzos (see Φανδαραζοσ), Gorgippia, Latyshev – OE. sear "dry, infertile".

Σκιλουροσ (skilouros), the father of Palakos (see Παλακοσ), the king of a Scythian tribe in Crimea – OE. scelian, scellan "to separate, divide", ūr "wealth".

Σκοπασισ (skopasis), Scythian military commander during the war with the Persians – perhaps the word is derived from OE scop "a poet, singer." OE ease "cup" can be offered for the second part of the word. However, the Greek sculptor Skopas was known (Gr σχοψ "an owl").

Σκυλησ, the son of Ariapeites (see Αριαπειθεσ) killed by the brother Octomasades (see Οκτομασαδησ) – OE scola «debtor» from sculan «to owe».

Σπαργαπειθησ (spargapeithes), the name of two men, one of them was the Agathyrsian king, another was the king of the Scythians – the name can be translated as "a hewing sparks" by means OE spearca “a spark" and restored word *pathan “to beat". Restoring followed in such a way. Old English had the word pađ “a path” but it is known that the words path, road are often attributed as "beaten". Farther, OE pýtan had one meaning "to squeeze, push". In addition, Herodotus translated Oyor-pata as "killing men". Obviously, the Turkic word pata- “to beat” was borrowed by Old English and was lost later. It should not confuse the names of Agathyrsian and Scythians kings had German origins. The fact of the transition royal names from one nation to another is known (M.I. Artamonov, 1974, 131).

Σπαροβαισ (sparobais), Panticapaeum – no good Iranian matches are found. Chuv sapăr "affectionate" + apăs "priest" could be taken but better consider OE spær "gypsum, limestone” and býan "to build" ("a mason, builder").

Σπαροφοτοσ (sparophotos), Tanaïs – to OE spær „gypsum, limestone” and pott „pot” or sparian “to protect” and fōt “foot”.

Σπαρτοκοσ (spartokos), names of some kings of the Bosporan Kingdom – OE. sparian „to spare, protect”, tācen "sign", teag 1. "band", 2. "communal land".

Στυρακοσ (sturakos), Gorgippia – one could not find a suitable word to be determined Ir. stur/stor „great”. It is probably necessary to consider OE. stōr "great" and āc "oak".

Σφαροβαισ (sfarobais), Panticapeum – "a mason, builder" (OE. spær "gypsum, limestone" and býan “to build”).

Τασιοσ (tasios), the Roxolanian leader at the end of the 2nd cen. BC – OE tæsan "to wound"

Τιαραντοσ (tiarantos), an unknown small river in Scythia – nothing better than OE tear "tears, drops" and andian "to envy, jealousy ".

Φαδιαροαζοσ (phadiaroazos), Tanaïs – we should see in this and subsequent names OE fadian "to lead". The second part of this name means "a copper ax" (OE ær, "copper", æces "an ax").

Φαδινομοσ (phadinomos), Tanaïs – to OE fadian "to lead" and nama "name".

Φαδιουσ (fadious), the son of Pamphilos, Panticapeum, Latyshev – OE. fadian "to lead".

Φαζιναμοσ (phadzinamos), Tanaïs – to OE fācian "to seek, demand, achieve" and nama "name".

Φαλδαρανοσ (phaldaranos), Tanaïs – to OE feld „field” and earn "an eagle" ("a steppe eagle") .

Φανδαραζοσ (phandaradzos), Gorgippia– to OE fandian „to try, teat” and racian „to dominate, direct ”.

Φηδανακοσ (phedanakos), Tanaïs – to OE fadian „to lead” and naca „a boot, ship”.

Φλειμναγοσ (phliamnagos), Olbia – to OE fliema "a fugitive" and nǽgan "to approach, attack".

Φλιανοσ (phlianos), Olbia – to OE fleon "to escape, avoid".

Φοργαβακοσ (phorgabakos), Tanaïs – "roasted on the fire" (OE fýr "fire", bacan " to roast", ga-prefix participle).

Φορηρανοσ (foreranos), Tanaïs, Knipovich – Harmatta explains the name on the warrant of the hypothetical Old Ir *paru-aryana as "conquered many of the Aryans", which is too cumbersome. Maybe it should draw OE fœre "able to walk, suitable for service", ræn "a house", rān "plunder, robbery".

Φοριαυοσ (phorianos), Tanaïs – OE fōr "journey, road” and eawan "to show, open", the name could mean "a guide ".

Φοσακοσ (phosakos), Tanaïs, Knipovich – "sheep" (Os fus)? OE fūs "pressing forward" and āc "an oak" and also "ship of oak".

Χομενοσ (khomevos), the son of Athenodoros Tanaïs – OE hām "dwelling place, house", hamian "to establish in a home".

Χοροαθος (khoroathos), the son of Sandardzos (see Σανδαρζιος), Tanais – OE. heoru „sword”, æđan „swear”.

Χοροξαδος (khoroksathos), Tanais – OE. heoru „sword”, sceađ „sheath”.

Χορσομανος (khorsomanos) or Χορσαμαντις, the Massaget, fpearman of Belisarius, VI cen., Procopius of Caesarea – OE. hors «horse», mann «man».