Ukrainian Surnames of Hypothetical Bulgarish Origin
The proposed list of surnames was checked for compliance with Chuvash words and supplemented with other decoding options by Oleg Maksimov, a Chuvash by nationality (Moscow). I express my heartfelt gratitude for his help.
Since traces of the presence of the Proto-Bulgars, the people of Turkic origin were left in many place names on the territory of Ukraine, an attempt was made to find matches also in anthroponotic. The Map of the distribution of the surnames of Ukraine, which indicates the number and places of distribution of some of them, is presented on the Internet. Using this map, you can check how hypothetical surnames of Bulgarish origin correlate with the spread of Bulgarish toponymy. The possibility of the existence of Ukrainian surnames of Bulgarish origin is confirmed by such fact. The name of the village of Gavarechchina in Lviv Region has a clear Bulgar origin, as it is connected to the common village handcraft of black pottery. The surname Bakusevich is typical for this village and it also has Bulgarish roots because old Chuvash male names Pakkuç, Pakus, Pakăs are recorded. The surnames Bakus, Bakusevich, or Bakutsevich are found also in the villages of Kimir, Ushkovichi, Chupernosov, Nedilyska in Peremyshlyany district, Lviv region, where the existence of Bulgar settlements can be confirmed by archaeological data (Cherepin-Lagodiv group of sites). Incidentally, the names of the first three above-mentioned villages are also explained by means of the Chuvash language. Obviously, Ukrainians took the name Backus from the Bulgars still in For-Christian times, and it was an additional person identifier after spreading Christian names. Later it, or derived from it Bakusevich – Bakutsevich were recorded as a surname. The explanations of the meaning of these noted names are is absent in the Chuvash dictionaries, but maybe, they originated from Chuv. pak "swiftly" or pakka "to thrash, beat" in conjunction with the affix – uç. This affix, just as – aç – eç is used to form nouns. Thus, we can be sure that some other Ukrainian surnames exist since prehistoric times, as well as names of villages in which they occur.
As research base "List of names of Dniester Land" (V. STETSYUK 2001: 156-214) has been taken. The list was compiled by members of the expedition "Dniester" of Lion Society (Lviv) in the years 1989-2001 and includes more than two thousand different names, typical in settlements of the Dniester region. Data on existing surnames outside of the Dniester Land are taken from the site:"A history of Surnames".
When looking for the names of possible Bulgarish origin, words out of the list which have a good phonetic match in the Chuvash language were taken for analysis. These of them were chosen because they have some semantic connection between partial words and are suitable for a name that is those which characterizes certain human qualities or speculation about the possible origin of the person or his occupation. Words only with good phonetic similarity but with questionable ability to use as a name were rejected.
Babay, there are 612 carriers of this surname in Ukraine, most of all in the city of Dnipro (76) – Chuv. papay "old man, grandfather".
Balukh, there are 689, most of them in the sity of Lviv (149) and Yavoriv district of Lviv Region – Chuv. pălukh "bad".
Bal'ukh, 61 carriers in Ukraine, most of all in the city of Ternopil' (10) – Chuv. pălukh "bad".
Betsa, 944 carriers, most of all in Volovets district of Zakarpattia Region. – Chuv. pěçě "thigh".
Dzindz'a, 14 carriers, 9 – in Horokhiv district of Volyn Region., Zinziuk, 174 carriers, most of all in Khotin district of Chernivtsi Region (56) – Chuv. çinçе "thin".
Dzyndra 115 carriers, most of all in the city of Lviv (23) – Chuv. çyn "man" + tără "height, top".
Dzundza, 672 carriers, most of all in the city of Kalush of Ivano-Frankivsk Region (141) – Chuv.çunsa "one who has lost all in a fire" (proposed by O.D Maksimov).
Dombay, 156 carriers, most of all in the village Hrushovo in Tyachiv district of Zakarpattia Region (59) – Chuv. tămpay "stupid, doodle".
Gamaliy (now Hamaliy), 668 carriers, most of all in Kyiv (93), the city of Sumy (25), and the town of Brovary of Kyiv Region (23) – Chuv. kămăl "temper", ie "evil spirit".
Gamaliychuk, 35 carriers, most of all in Manevychi district of Volyn Region (19), especially in the village of Kopylla (9) – Chuv. kămăl "temper", ie "evil spirit".
Gamalia, 26 carriers, most of all in the city of Mariupol' (9) – Chuv. kămăl "temper", ie "evil spirit".
Kanthedal, 579 carriers, most of all in Kharkiv (160), Kontsedaylo, 188 carriers, most of all in Zhytomyr (32), as well as several dozen surnames containing similar stems – Chuv. kan "rest", çĕt "to plow virgin soil", Chuv. dial. al "to plow virgin soil".
Karach, 379 carriers, most of all in Ivano-Frankivsk Region, especially in the villages of Snovydiv, Bozyliv, and just in the city of Ivano-Frankivsk (in all 76) – Chuv. kărach "scanty".
Karachun, 1009 carriers, in all Ukraine, most of all in Letychiv district 0f Ternopil Region (67) – Chuv. kărach "scanty", ăn "mind".
Kavkalo, 76 carriers, most of all in Kelmentsi district of Chernivtsi Region (35) – чув. хавхаллă "noisy, clamorous".
Kitsela, 95 carriers, most of all in the town of Burshtyn of Ivano-Frankivsk Region (15) – Chuv. kĕçĕllĕ "a scabby".
Kotrus 26 carriers, most of all in the city of Kherson (5) – Chuv. Kătraç male name from kătra "curly".
Kurpan 56 carriers, most of all in Nova Odesa district of Mykolaiv Region (10) – чув. kărpan is the name of a spirit.
Martăk, 14 carriers, most of all in the town of Bila Tserkva in Kyiv Region (11) – Chuv. martăk "fragile".
Mantay, 18 carriers, most of all in the town of Oleksandria of Kirovograd Region (5) – Chuv. Mantay "big, hefty".
Matyar, 63 carriers, most of all in Lymansky district of Odessa Region (27) – Chuv. matyar "scatterbrained".
Narbut, 153 carriers, most of all in Kyiv – Chuv. nar "beauty", păt "perfect".
Patsagan, 96 carriers, most of all in the village of Olesha in Tlumach district of Ivano-Frankivsk Region (21) – чув. pasăk "great", ăn "mind".
Petyovka, 166 carriers, most of all in Mukachevo district of Zakarpattya Region – Chuv. pĕtev "body".
Sabala, 35 carriers, most of all in Borshchiv district of Ternopil Region (10) and Peremyshlany district of Lviv Region – Chuv. săpaylă "modest".
Sabalo, 14 carriers, most of all in the town of Berezhany of Ternopil Region (7) and Peremyshlany district of Lviv Region – Chuv. săpaylă "modest".
Sagala, 90 carriers, most of all in the village of Boyanets of Zhovkva district (17) and in the town of Sokal' (11) of Lviv Region – Chuv. sakăl "piebald".
Sagalo, 60 carriers, most of all in Man'kivka district of Cherkasy Region (15) – Chuv. sakăl "piebald".
Sagal', 381 carriers, most of all in the city of Kovel' and Ternopil (22) – Chuv. sakăl "piebald".
Sakal', 897 carriers, most of all in Svalava district of Zakarpattya Region (457) – Chuv. sukhal "beard".
Sheremet, 8833 carriers, most of all in Kyiv(696), Dniproе (393), Kharkiv (236) – Chuv. sheremet "poor fellow, sufferer".
Tolpeko, 34 carriers in the whole Ukraine – Chuv. talpăn "to rush", ekki "temper"
Tymtsyurak (also Temtsyurak), 109 carriers, most of all in Kalush district of Ivano-Frankivsk Region (31) and the next Zhydachiv one of Lviv Region (21) – tem "nobody knows whose", çura "child" (that is an orphan). Good phonetic correspondence and semantic connection of words with the Ukrainian suffix. However, a connection with Chuv. çurăk is possible.
Tsyurak, 275 carriers, most of all in Nadvirna district of Ivano-Frankivsk Region (126) – Chuv. çурăк "broken, tattered" .
Vanchak, 49 carriers, most of all in Lviv (17) – Chuv. vanchăk "small".
Vytrykush, 524 carriers, most of all in Lviv (100) and Lviv Region. – Chuv. vitěr "keen, sharp-sighted", kuç "an eye".
Chaus, 1876 carriers, most of all in the cities of Kyiv (130), Chernihiv (85), Lviv (53) – Chuv. chuvăc "Chuvash".
Yakhvak, 94 carriers, most of all in the city of Sambir of Lviv Region (30) – Chuv. yăkh "clan, tribe", vak "small". Semantic connection of words could describe belonging to minor genus kin.
Kerel'us, 43 carriers, most of all in the city of Staryi Sambir district of Lviv Region, in the village of Torchinovyshi 13 – Chuv. khĕr "daughter, girl, bride", ilӳ "take" + ç the affix for an acting person. In the whole "a fiance".
Khalabura, 48 carriers, most of all in the town of Chernelytsia, Horodenka district of Ivano-Frankivsl Region – Chuv. khalap "fairytale", ăru "kin". The phrase can characterize belonging to a legendary family.
Pelesh, 78 carriers in the whole Ukraine – Chuv. pĕlĕsh "a relative".
Pelekh, 2491 carriers, most of all in the city of Lviv (384), – Chuv. pellĕkh "blessed".
Tarabalka, 38 carriers, most of all in Zalishchyky district of (19) and just in the village of Shutromyntsi (12) of Ternopil Region - Chuv. tură "divine" pulkkă "flock" (elated to folk). The Chuvash word is the initial for Slav. polk "regiment", Gmc. *fulka "people, folk"). The surname can indicate belonging to a distinct kin.
Tarabalko, 12 carriers, most of all in Kotelva district of Poltava Region, there are also several surnames in the Zalishchiky district of the Ternopil Region, and in neighboring Gorodenka district of Chernivtsi Region - see Tarabalka.
Bagan, 715 carriers, most of all in Lviv Region (the city of Lviv – 45, Sambir district – 45) – Chuv. pakan unknown word, pukan "block, log".
Balan, 5530 carriers, most of all in Starozhynets district of Chernivtsi Region (294), Kyiv (292), and Odessa (253) – Chuv. pălan "deer".
Barda, 509 carriers, most of all in the town of Pervomaysk of Mykolaiv Region (39) – Chuv. Părtta – male name.
Barta, 815 carriers, most of all in the village of Fornosh in Mukachevo district (136) and in the city of Mukachevo (97) in Zakarpattia. Such a surname (Barta) is also common in Hungary, but it can also have Chuvash roots because the Chuvash and Hungarian languages have numerous common vocabulary – Chuv. Părtta – male name.
Begin, 100 carriers, most of all in Tlumach district of Ivano-Frankivsk Region – Chuv. Pekine – male name.
Burak, 2283 carriers, most of all in the city of Lviv (167) – Chuv. purăk "basket".
Burda, 2848 carriers, most of all in the city of Kharkiv (167), Lviv (145) Kyiv (91) – Chuv. purtă "ax".
Dzherdzh, 440 carriers, most of all in the village of Vozyliv in Buchach district of Ternopil Region (179) – Chuv. çerçe "sparrow".
Dzidza, 42 carriers, most of all in the town of Chernelytsia (13), Horodenka district of Ivano-Frankivsl Region – Chuv. çiç "shine".
Galak, 1123 carriers, most of all in Novoseytsia district of Vhernivtsi Region. (153), particularly in the village of Marshyntsi (116), there is also a cluster in the Uman district of Cherkasy region (50) – Chuv. kălăkh "vain". Given the prevalence of the surname, such a meaning is questionable. Somewhat better kalakh "shovel, paddle".
Halat, 932 carriers, most of all in Kyiv (65) – Chuv. khăлlat "kite".
Kampo, 204 carriers, most of all in Transcarpathia, Mukachevo – 41, also Kampov, 360 carriers, in Mukachevo – 98 – Chuv. kămpo, kămpa "mushroom".
Karach, 379 carriers, most of all in neighboring villages of Snovidiv and Voziliv (48), Buchach district of Ternopil Region– Chuv. kărach "scarce".
Karmak, 21 carriers, almost all in Zaporizhia and Orekhiv district of Zaporizhia Region. – Chuv. kărmăk "coal".
Katsal, 143 carriers, most of all in the village of Uladivka/ Lityn district of Vinnutsia Region (30) – Chuv. kaçal "evening, nightly".
Kavrus, 16 carriers – Chuv. kavrăç "ash-tree".
Kharlan, 824 carriers, most of all in the city of Kyiv (86), Zaporizhia (42), Kryvyi Rih (40) – Chuv. khurlan "to be sad".
Khalaim, 253 carriers, most of all in the village of Pischana in Balta district of Odessa Region (53) – Chuv. khăla "light brown", im "medicine".
Khaman, 32 carriers, most of all in the city of Drohobych of Lviv Region (8) – Chuv. khaman "strong, healthy".
Khamar, 40 carriers, most of all in the city of Lviv (17) and in the town of Berezhany of Ternopil Region (13) – Chuv. khamar "ours, our".
Kokar, 69 carriers, most of all in the city of Zaporizhzhia (18) – Chuv. kăkăr "chest".
Kolchak, 146 carriers throughout Ukraine – Chuv. kălchak "scammer".
Konchak, 273 carriers, most of all in Lviv (57) – Chuv. kanchăk "bag", kănchăk "“balled up”.
Koshman, 1879 carriers, most of all in Kyiv (121), Kharkiv (74), Chernivtsi (69), and Chernivtsi region (about three hundred) – Chuv. kăshman "beet".
Kurza, 108 carriers, most of all in Kyiv (31) – Chuv. khurçă "steel".
Makal', 24 carriers, most of all in the village of Kydantsi, Zbarazh district of Ternopil' Region (8) – Chuv. măkăl' "bump, swelling".
Paranchuk, 193 carriers, most of all in Lviv (68) – Chuv. părănchăk "slope, skew".
Pylat, 533 носії, most of all, near the town of Gorodok, Lviv Region – Chuv. pil "honey", ătă "jar".
Pokal'chuk, 337 carriers, most of all in the town of Olevsk, Zhytomyr Region (80) – Chuv. Pakăl'chak "huckle-bone".
Pukan, 27 carriers, most of all in the village of Sopov Kolomyia district of Ivano-Frankivsk Region (11) – Chuv. pukan "block, log".
Sabadyr, 218 carriers, most of all in the city of Dnipro (41) and in the town of Kobelyaky of Poltava Region – Chuv. Sapattăr last name is obviously from săpat "face, appearance".
Sarakhman, 977 carriers, very common in the city of Sambir (50) and villages Vanevichі (39), Morozovtsy, Sambir district, Lviv Region – O.M. Maximov proposed sarăkh "turn yellow", man – the affix of the participle in negative form.
Savoluk, 413 carriers, most of all in the village of Ivanivtsi, Barsky district (37) and the village of Gavrishivka Vinnytsia district (30) Vinnytsia Region – Chuv. savăl "wedge".
Savon, 713 carriers, most of all in the town of Tokmak, Zaporizhzhya Region (65) and in the village of Vyshenky, Borisplsky district of Kyiv Region (50) – Chuv. savăn "rejoice, have fun".
Savonchuk, 76 carriers, most of all in the village of Visotsk, Dubrovitsky district, Rivne Region (21) – Chuv. savăn "rejoice, have fun".
Sharan, 799 carriers, most of all in Zhydachiv district 0f Lviv Region (59), Lviv (45), Zhytomyr (36) – Chuv. shăran has many different meanings and it is difficult to determine which one was more suitable for a person’s name in old times – 1. “melt”, 2. “smolder”, 3. “lose weight, dry out", 4. "weaken, decrepit", 5. "boil", 6. "shine, sparkle".
Syumar, 46 carriers, most of all in the village of Skala in Orativ district of Vinnytsia Region (8) – Chuv. çumăr "rain".
Taratuta, 367 carriers, most of all in the city of Dnipro (28) and Kharkiv (28). It's known the Ukrainian food taratuta – Chuv. tără 1. "top", 2. "clean" і tută "taste".
Trambolyak, 11 carriers, 6 – in the city of Poltava, 5 – in the city of Kalush of Ivano-Frankibsk Region – Chuv. trampi- unknown word, possibly meaning "boat" (cf Gr. τράμπις "barbarian boat"), -lya – the Chuvash word-forming affix of adjectives.
Tsizdyn, 231 carriers, most of all in the village of Trukhaniv in Skole district of Lviv Region (119) – Chuv. çiç "shine", tĕn "faith, religion".
The very number of Ukrainian surnames that allow interpretation using the Chuvash language indicates the presence of the ancient Bulgars in Ukraine, but their spatial distribution also confirms the conclusion made by other methods about their long stay in Western Ukraine. In particular, this is evidenced by Chuvash-Germanic Language Connections, convincing explanations for which linguists do not find (YEGOROV GENNADIY. 1993, KORNILOV G.E. 1973), borrowings from Bulgarish into other Indo-European languages, as well as a cluster of Bulgarish place names in the neighborhood of the ancestral home of the ancient Germans, characteristic Chuvash vocabulary, some elements of the Chuvash folk culture, etc. (see details Discussion). Settling in Western Ukraine for several millennia, the ancient Bulgars created here a number of interconnected archaeological cultures of still unknown ethnicity. At the beginning of III millennium BC. they became the creators of the Corded Ware culture (CWC) and spread it during their migrations over a vast area from Scandinavia to the foothills of the Alps and from the Rhine to the Volga River. Some of them, remained in the territory of the modern Lviv Region, created the Komariv culture (XV-XIII cent. BC.), and later the Vysotska did (XXII-VI cent. BC). After that, they began to move in the steppes of Ukraine and became known in history as Scythians (see the section Genesis of Scythian Culture). Another part of the Bulgars moved to Hungary, however, in Western Ukraine, a small Bulgarian population remained until the ancestors of modern Ukrainians arrived there, as evidenced not only by onomastics but also by common elements of the folk culture of Ukrainians and Chuvash (see Cultural Substratum). It was these Bulgars who became the creators of the culture of the Carpathian mounds (II-V century AD). Data illustrating all these processes are entered in Google My Maps (see below).
Traces of the stay of the Bulgars in prehistoric times on the territory of Ukraine in onomastics
On the map, red medium-sized circles and lines indicate geographical objects, the names of which may be of Bulgarish origin.
Large circles denote settlements, the names of which are of Bulgar origin, and at the same time the presence of surnames of Bulgar origin is recorded in them.
Small red dots mark the settlements in which the names of the alleged Bulgarian origin are recorded. The interpretation of onomastics by means of the Chuvash language can be seen on Google My Map.
The map shows that the distribution of the Bulgar toponymy corresponds to the Bulgarian anthroponymy and, in general, the Bulgar onomastics is expressed more densely in Western Ukraine. In addition, in comparison with Western Ukraine, there are few settlements in the east where carriers of surnames of Bulgarian origin live, although there should have been more. This is due to the fact that, in general, in Ukraine, work similar to that made by the "Dniester" expedition was not carried out, and in the available sources it is difficult to find incomprehensible names, even in the Middle Dnieper region. However, in Kyiv itself, there are enough such surnames (Sheremet, Narbut, Karzan, Harlan, etc.). Their carriers may be immigrants from the nearest locality, but the annals legend testifies that the Bulgars stayed in Kyiv, and perhaps even became its founders. According to legend, the city was founded by three brothers Kiy, Schek, and Khoryv. The name of the latter is well deciphered by Chuvash khăra “fear”. Two other names, if desired, can also be interpreted, but since they are monosyllabic, there can be several interpretations and they will not be convincing. But here the name of their sister Lybed, by which a river in Kyiv is named, can be explained with the help of Chuv.lĕpĕte "hollow". Searches can go on.