The migration of the Indo-European Peoples at the End of the 2nd and at the Beginning of the 1st Mill BC
The sequel of the theme
The Archaeological Cultures in the Basins of the Dnieper, Don, and Dniester in the XX – XII Centuries. BC.
In The First Great Migration of all Indo-Europeans did not participate Slavic, Baltic, Germanic, Iranian and Thracian tribes. They only expanded their territories to varying degrees. The largest range was occupied by the Iranians. They settled on the wide space between the Dnieper and the Don. Here on the known ethno-producing areas separate dialects were distinguished from the Proto-Iranian language, which gave rise to current Iranians (ñì. ðàçäåë Iranic Tribes in the Eastern Europe at the Bronze Age
). Almost all Iranians remained in these places for several centuries, but in the XI – X cent. BC. Assyrian sources have already recorded their appearance in Western Iran (ARTAMONOV M.I. 1974: 10). Following the first Iranians, their main mass migrated to Asia. The Iranian tribes that inhabited the most northern ranges, the ancestors of the Ossetians, Baluchis and Kurds, remained the longest in Europe. The broad topic of migration of Iranians is discussed separately in sections. Cimmerians, Cimbri, Iranic Place Names
Indo-European tribes in Eastern Europe in the 2nd millennium BC..
The northern part of the right bank of the Dnieper was inhabited by the Balts and Slavs. Part of the Balts moved to the left bank of the Berezina River in the area left by the Tokharians, while the other part remained on its ancestral homeland. Thus, the initial division of the Proto-Baltic language into Western and Eastern dialects occurred. The fact that the Baltic population was concentrated here at some time is confirmed by toponymic data. Specialists emphasize that the largest proportion of Baltic hydronimy was recorded precisely in the Berezina basin(TOPOROV V.N.,TRUBACHIOV O.N. 1962: 235; STRYZHAK O.S. 1981).
Slavs expanded their territory in a westerly direction. At the time of the division of the bulk of the Slavic languages from the Proto-Slavic the Slavs already inhabited the territory between the Vistula River and the upper reaches of the Oka River south of Daugava River (se the section The Ethnogenesis of the Slavs). A part of the Slavs still lives on this territory, so it can be assumed that after settlement they never left it. However, there is evidence that before the Slavs, the Balts lived at least in some part of this space. They were the eastern neighbors of the Slavs for a long time.
At left: The archaeological Cultures in the basins of the Dnieper, Don and the Dniester in the XV – XII centuries. BC.
According to research made by the graphic-analytical method., Germanic tribes in the 2nd millennium BC. populated the basins of the Pripyat and Western Bug River (see Germanic Tribes in the Eastern Europe at the Bronze Age and the map at left).
To the south of the East Germanic people, the Thracians lived on the right bank of the middle Dnieper, who came here under the pressure of the Iranians from the left bank. In the Northern Black Sea region, Armenians and Phrygians could remain for some time, the bulk of whom found themselves in Asia Minor at one time. Some connections of the Sabatinovka culture in the North Pontic Region with the culture of Mycenaean Greece (CHERNIAKOV I.T. 2010: 118) confirm this hypothesis.
We associate the Germanic people with the Trzciniec culture, in which its eastern range, the so-called Sosnitska culture, dating from 1700 – 1000 BC is distinguished. (LYSENKO S.D. 2005: 60). The Komariv culture also belongs to the Trzciniec range of cultures (TRC), the creators of which were the ancient Bulgars who lived in the upper reaches of the Dniester River south of those Germanic tribe whom we call the Teutons which inhabited Volyn. Polish scientists determine the upper limit of the Trzciniec culture on the territory of Poland by 19th st. BC. At some time, a part of the Germanic tribes (Teutons, Franks, Frisians) moved west, crossed the Vistula River and ousted further beyond the Oder River the Celts who lived there. The fact that this territory was occupied by the Celts, is confirmed by Celtic place names in Poland. Having settled the territory between the Vistula and the Oder, and staying here for a long time, the Germanic people developed a Lausitian culture on the basis of the Trzcibiec. Some scientists consider this culture to be Slavic, but on the whole their arguments in support of such a hypothesis are not convincing. Detailed criticism of the Slavic identity of the Lausitisn culture referring to reputable archaeologists can be found at W. Mańczak (MAŃCZAK WITOLD<. 1981), although the Polish scientist is right only about everything. Nevertheless, the main motive of his critics is supported by other scientists:
We associate them with Trzciniec culture which eastern part is dated 1700 – 1000 BC (LYSENKO S.D. 2005, 60) Polish scientists determine its upper limit by the 19th century BC. At some time, most of the Germanic people moved westward, crossed the Vistula River and ousted the living there Celts further beyond the Oder. The fact that this territory was occupied just by the Celts was confirmed by Celtic place names in Poland.
Occupying the area between the Vistula and the Oder and staying there for a long time, the Germans had developed on the basis of Trzciniec culture the Lusatian one.The Lusatian culture was considered by some scientists to be the Slavic, but in whole their arguments, supported this hypothesis, were not convincing, and it has been rejected. The criticism of this hypothesis with references to the data of some authoritative archaeologists gave W.Manchak (MAŃCZAK WITOLD., 1981) and K. Horalek (HORÁLEK KAREL., 1983: 170). The main arguments of the critics are like that:
The hypothesis about the Slavic origin of the Lusatian culture is improbable already because doubtless Slavic archaeological records prove the level of a culture essentially more archaic, primitive and poor (ibid, 171).
Thus, it appears that apart from the Germans, its creators admit nobody. The boundary of the Lusatian cultures at this time were precisely defined by K.Jażdżevsky:
In the 3rd Bronze Age period (1300-1100 BC) the Lusatian culture emerged in the area which may be described as follow: its northern boundary lines ran along the southern coast of the Baltic from Greifswald to the mouth of the Vistula, its western limit stretched from Greifswald towards the Middle Elbe which is crossed somewhat north of the outlet of the Havel into the Elbe, and farther kept to the western bank of the Elbe and advanced towards the upper course of the river encroaching upon some insignificant portion of the Old March (Altmark), Anhalt, and Saxony. The southern limit was roughly drown by the Upper Elbe (the boundary of Lusation culture somewhat overstepped this limit to the south); it further encircled the enclave of the Lusatian area which advanced farthest southward and reached as far as the basin of the Upper Morave, the Middle Vah and the Upper Nitra. It then turned towards the sources of the Oder and the Vistula until it ultimately – along the course of theUpper Vistula reached the line of the Lower San. The finds of Lusatian culture from that period reach eastward as far as the Vistula which they cross ti the east in the Chlmno lauds and the Masovia of Plock (JAŻDŻEWSKI KONRAD., 1948: 31).
Sites of Lusatian culture and neighboring tribes.
The map used data of Ñaéòà îá àðõåîëîãèè
Thus we can conclude that at the end of the 1st millennium BC the majority of Germanic tribes have left the basin of the Pripyat and the territory to the east of the Vistula river was already settled by the Slavs. The settlements of the Balts were onward, they gradually expanded their territory in all directions, starting from the basin of the Berezina River. We can say quite confidently about the settlement of the Balts on the territory of Belarus during Pre-Slavic period even till the middle of the 1st mill AD (ZVERUGO Y.G., 1990: 32). This opinion has been formed by such competent experts as L. Niderle, V. Sedov, and others long before. We can argue about the upper chronological limit specified by Ya. Zverugo, but many of the facts, indeed, may confirm this opinion.
However, before the Balts settled the entire territory of modern-day Belorussia, the Goths and North Germanic tribes had to stay at least on a part of it for some time. As plce names shows, a way of the North Germanic people from the ancestral homeland in the lower Pripyat to Scandinavia passed along the Ptich River to Minsk and further towards the Western Dvina. They could not move to the west, otherwise they would have to cut off the Goths, and the east direction was blocked by the Iranians. The Goths, moving west, ahead of the Slavs, reached the lower Vistula River and then, passing through East Prussia, reached the mouth of the Oder. This way of the Goths is fixed in the chain of place names, but no other traces of their movement or long stay in Prussia were found. They can be found only in the Welbar culture of a later time in the region of Gdansk. For details, seeAncient Teutonic, Gothic, and Frankish Place Names in Eastern Europe.
However, before the Balts settled the entire territory of modern-day Belorussia, the Goths and North Germanic tribes had to stay at least on a part of it for some time. Their journey to Scandinavia was to go along the Dnieper and Western Dvina, which follows from the location of their ancestral homeland on the left bank of the lower Pripyat. They could not move to the west, otherwise they would have to pass the Goths and Teutons, and the east direction was blocked by the Iranians.
While the majority of Germanic tribes crossed the Vistula, some of them still stayed on their Urheimat. Among the remaining Germanic population were mainly eastern tribes of the Anglo-Saxons. At some time, the Kurds appeared in their area, getting down the Desna River from their ancestral homeland to the Dnieper and crossing to its right bank. The presence of Kurds in the Anglo-Saxon area is confirmed by place names in the Kiev and Zhytomyr Regions, decoded using the Kurdish language: Berdychev, Byshev, Devoshin, Kichkiri, Narayevka and others. Not finding sufficient space for settlement, the Kurds moved further west and stopped in the basin of the left tributaries of the Dniester. Traces of their long presence in these places next to the Bulgars remained in numerous toponymy on the territory of the modern Khmelnytsky and Ternopil Regions. Some of its examples include the following:
v. Baznikivka, to the south-west of Kozeva in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. baz, “a falcon,” nikul, “a beak”;
v.Hermakivka (Germakivka), southeast of Borščev in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. germik, “warm place”;
v.v. Velyki and Mali Dederkaly on the outskirts of Kremenec’ in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. dederi, “a tramp,” kal, “old”;
v. Dzhulynka, to the north-east of Bershad’ in Vinnytsia Region – Kurd. colan “cradle”;
v. Kalaharivka (Kalagarivka), to the south-east of Hrymajliv in Ternopil’ Region – Kurd. qal, "to kindle,” agir, “a flame”;
v. Kilikiyiv, to the north-east of Slavuty in Khmel’nyc’kyj Region – Kurd. kelek, “ferry”;
v. Mikhyrinci to north-east of Volochys’k – Kurd. mexer “ruins”;
v. Mukhariv to the east of the town of Novohrad-Volynski – Kurd. mû “wool, hair”, xarû “clean, pure”;
v. Tauriv to the west of Ternopil’ – Kurd. tawer, “rock;”
v. Chepeli near Brody in L’viv Region and northeast of Khmel’nyk in Vinnytsia Region, and the village of Čepelivka in Khmel’nyc’kyj Region in the suburbs of Krasilov – Kurd. çepel, “dirty”;
We consider the Anglo-Saxons to be the creators of the Sosnitsa culture, and we will be consistent if we also recognize them as the creators of Lebediv culture, since it was formed on the basis of the Sosnitsa. Its center was "on the area between the Pripyat and Ros" (Arkheologiya Ukrainskoy SSR. Tom 2., 1985: 445). Obviously, its formation was influenced by that part of the Thracians who still remained between the Teterev and Ros' Rivers, when their bulk under pressure from the Anglo-Saxons already moved in search of new places. However, most of the sites of this culture are found in the triangle between the Dnieper and the Desna River, although similar to them sporadically occur even till the Goryn' River (ibid, 445).
Place names witness the stay of the Anglo-Saxons on both banks of the Dnieper. On the right bank, Old English toponyms are found in the former area of the Thracians and then stretch, as well as sites of the Sosnitka culture, to the Tiasmin River. The name of the Irpen’ River is explained on the basis of the Old English language most convincingly. This river has broad swampy flood-lands, therefore earfenn, composed of OE ear "lake" or "land" and OE fenn "marsh, mud" and translated for the name of the Irpen’ as "muddy lake" or "wetlands", suitable especially good as in ancient times the flood-plain should have been more swamped than now. OE fenn "marsh mud" could be present also in the name of the village Fenevichi near the town of Dymer in the Kiev Region. The village is surrounded by wetlands, so the motivation of the name is well-founded. The city's name Fastov obviously comes from OE. fǽst “strong, sturdy”. OE swiera “neck”, “ravine, gorge" helps to decipher the names of the town of Skvira on the Skvirka River, rt of the Ros’, if k after s is epenthesis, ie inserted sound to give greater expression to the word. In favor of the proposed etymology says the name of the village of Krivosheino formed from Ukrainian words meaning “curved neck” which can be loan transcription of an older name. The village is located on this river bend.
Other examples of place names of Anglo-Saxon origin may be these:
v. Dirdyn not far from the town of Horodyshche in Cherkasy Region. – OE đirda «third»;
v. Hodorkov in Zhytomyr region – OE. hador "cheerful, lively";
t. Korsun of Shevchenko – OE corsian “to weave”;
v. Mircha west of the rown of Dymer in Kiev Region and v. south of the town of Malin in Zhytomyr Region. – OE mearce “borders";
t. of Smela, the district center of Cherkassy Region. – The name of the town can have both Slavic and Anglo-Saxon origin (OE smiellan “to weave");
r. Tal, the right tribute of the Teteriv – OE *tǽl “fast” (ge-tǽl "cheerful, lively") ;
t. Tarashcha, the district center in the Kiev Region – OE đār «here, hhere», ǽsc “an ash";
t. Tetiev, the district center in the Kiev region – OE tǽtan “to please, to caress";
The spread of sites of Sosnitska culture
The fragment of the map onArchaeology site
The map also shows several sites of the Bondarikha culture and the village of Konyatin as the residence of the tribal elite of the Anglo-Saxons.
In the basin of the Desna River, Old English toponyms are also concentrated within the Sosnitka culture. Their especially dense group is located in the Bryansk region and they mostly belong to a later stage of its development, which may indicate that their creators came from the right bank of the Dnieper, where most of the sites belong to the early stage. The very name of Bryansk (in the chronicle Bryn') has a clear Old English origin – cf. OE bryne "fire". Such a name could be given during the time of slash-and-burn agriculture. If the Anglo-Saxons, like the Kurds earlier, used the Desna to move, but in the opposite direction, then their path to Bryansk can be marked, among others, with such toponyms:
Chernigov – OE. ciern „butter kernels”, cū, Eng. cow „êîðîâà” (out of IE guou);
Rybotyn, a village in Korop district of Chernigov Region – OE. rūwa "cover", tūn "town";
Fursovo, a village in Novgorod-Siverski district of Chernigov Region – OE. fyrs "furze, gorse, bramble";
Grinevo, a village in Pogar district of Bryansk Region – OE grien "sand, gravel";
Ivaytenki, Old and New, villages ib Unech district of Bruansk Region – OE. iw "wilow", wæġ (Eng. wey) "Wall" (wickerwork), đennan "stretch";
Sin'kovo,a village in Zhiryatin district of Bryansk Region – OE. sinc "treasure, riches";
Malfa, a village in Vygonychi district of Bryansk Region – OE. mal "spot", fā/fāh "motley";
Many other toponyms of Anglo-Saxon origin are scattered throughout the Left-Bank Ukraine and in the adjacent regions of Russia. Most of them are located in the area of distribution of Lebediv culture. Obviously, they were left by the second, later wave of Anglo-Saxon immigrants. Below are examples of the most transparent interpretation of some toponyms:
v. Byrlovka in Drabiv district of Cherkassy Region. – OE byrla „body”;
t. Dykanka in Poltava Region – OE đicce “tick”, anga „thorn, edge”;
the city of Homel in Belorussia – OE humele „bryonia”, hymele "hop, hops";
t. Ichnia in Chernihiv Region – OE eacnian „to add”;
vv. Ivot to the east of the town Novhorod-Siverski and in the north of Bryansk Region in Russia, rivers Ivotka, Ivotok – OE ea "river", wœt "fury";
r. Kleven', pt. of the Seym – OE cliewen “a clew”;
v. Konyatyn in Sosnytsia district of Chernihiv Region – Gmc. *kunja "kin", "noble origin" and OE tūn "town".
r. Nerussa, lt. of the Desna – OE neru “nourishment”, usse „our”;
r. Resseta rt of the Zhizdra, lt of the Oka – OE rǽs "running" (from rǽsan "to race, hurry") or rīsan "to rise" and seađ "spring, source";
t. Romodan in Myrhorod district of Poltava Region – OE rūma „space”, OE dān „humid, humid place”;
t. Romny in Sumy Region – OE romian “to seek, aim”.
t. Senkiv in Poltava district – OE sencan “to dip, sink”.
r. Svessa, lt. of the Ivotka, lt. of the Desna, the town of Svessa in Sumy district – OE swǽs “peculiar, pleasant, beloved”.
r. Seym, lt. of the Desna – OE seam "side, seam".
r. Smiach, rt. of the Snov, rt. of the Desna – OE smieć “smoke, steam”.
t. Sugia on r. Sugia, lt Psel – OE sugga „sparrow”;
r. Ul, lt. of the Sev, lt. of Nerussa, lt. of the Desna – OE ule “owl”.
r. Volfa, lt. of the Seym – OE wulf “wolf”.
r. Vytebet', lt of the Zhyzdra, rt of the Oka – OE wid(e) "wide", bedd "bed, river-bed".
It is significant that place nanes of English origin waere recorded not only in the territory of the Lebediv culture, which was separated from the Bondarikha by the Sula River, but also further to the Vorskla. Obviously, the Anglo-Saxons supplanted the creators of the latter, which were obviously Mordovian tribes, with whom they, however, remained in certain contacts (for more details, see the section"The Expansion of the Finno-Ugric Peoples"). The Sula River has many different explanations (VASMER M., 1971: 799-800; MENGES K.H. 1979: 131), incuding Mok s'ula, Erz s'ulo "a gut" but OE solu "a pool, puddle, slop" suits best of all. The Anglo-Saxons, or perhaps only a part of them, remained on the left Bank of Ukraine until the Migration Period. This is evidenced by some Scythian realities, the epigraphic of the Northern Black Sea region and historical events (see the Alans-Angles-Saxons
For some reason, the Anglo-Saxons passed on the left bank of the Dnieper is difficult to say. One of the reasons could be the relative overpopulation caused by the depletion of the natural resources of the area, but the Anglo-Saxons could leave their ancestral homeland forcing invasions of fremd-speaking tribes. The emergence of the Kurds might have played a some role, but the pressure of the Balts who moved to the right bank of the Pripyat River was more likely. The presence of the Balts to the south of the Pripyat is indicated by the interpretation of hydronymic data, made by V.Toporov and O.Trubachev, who considered the appearance of Balts there as a natural events:
The presence of Baltic elements on both sides of the Pripyat looks doubtful only under condition that the Pripyat was a insurmountable border, as it is usually considered in the literature (TOPOROV V.N., TRUBACHEV O.N., 1962: 233).
The Archaeological Cultures in the Basins of the Dnieper, Don, and Dniester in the XV – VIII Centuries. BC. and paths of the migration of their creatirs
As it was noted, Berezina divided the Balts into two groups – the eastern and western dialect. It is logical to assume that Lithuanian, Latvian (Latgalian), Selon, Zemgale, Kuronian developed from the eastern dialect as they are less conservative than the languages developed from the Western dialect (Prussian and Yatviazh). At the same time, of all the Baltic languages, Latvian is less archaic. Obviously, the speakers of a more archaic Lithuanian language all the time remained near the ancestral home of the Balts, as it was pointed out by a well-known Bulgarian linguist (GEORGIEV Vl., 1958: 247). An external factor of such features of the Baltic languages may be different intensity of the the Baltic-Finnish contacts (MAŽIULIS V., 1973: 28-29).
The northern-east and eastern boundaries of Baltic settlings to the moment of the early Iron Age (8-7 ages B.C.) were defined by V.V.Sedov. In his opinion, the boundary ran along the course of the West Dvina (Daugava River) eastward to the upper Lovat’ River and to the sources of the Dnepr, then to the south-east, crossed the river Oka near to mouth of its tributary the Ugra River and further lay along the watershed between the Oka and the Don rivers (SEDOV V.V., 1990-2: 90). Sedov believes that Balts occupied areas from the south-eastern Coast of the Baltic Sea up to the upper Oka and the the middle Dnepr, producing here three tibe groups – western (the tribe of West-Baltic barrows), median (the tribe of the shaded claywares), and the Dnepr group (the tribe of the Dnepr-Dvina rivers, the upper Oka and the Yukhnov cultures)(Ibid: 90). However the culture of the West-Baltic kurgans, in spite of V. Sedov, was created not by Balts, but by Slavs, who passed from their Urheimat to the left bank of the Neman River and settled the shore of the Baltic Sea from the Vistila till the Neman and Venta River. In course of time the Baltes crossed the Neman and were mixed with local Slavic population what was resulted in some ethnic group of the Yotvingians. Some scientists believe that once the tribes of the Yotvingians and Galindians formed a part of the Proto-Slavic dialect area (BIRNBAUM H.,1993: 14.) In this regard, it can be assumed that the ancestors of the Prussians and Yotvingians moved closer to the shores of the Baltic, where they become known already in historical time and where they are least affected by Finnish languages. Archaeological data are confirmed by the toponymy:
As a whole, the northern and eastern boundaries of the Baltic tribes of early Iron Age in the main coincide with the boundary separating the Baltic and Finno-Ugric toponymies and hydronymies. This boundary ran from the Gulf of Riga to the upper reaches of the Western Dvina and the Volga. Turning further to the south, it is cut off Riverlands of the Moscow-river from the basin the Volga river and the upper reaches of the Oka river, then along the watershed of the Oka and the upper reaches of the Don came to the steppe (TRET'YAKOV P.N., 1982: 54-55).
Taking into account the archaeological and toponymic data, it can be assumed that part of the eastern Balts, moving from the Dnieper and Berezina rivers to the north, moved to the right bank of the Western Dvina, where they created the Dnieper-Dvina culture, and later, moving along the Western Dvina to the north West, reached the sea and became, over time, the core of the Latvian ethnic group. Another group of eastern Balts moved eastward, crossing the Dnieper and displacing the Iranians from the Desna basin. This could be the reason for the movement of the Kurds to the Anglo-Saxon area.
Traces of the Balts are found in the dialects and place names of Central Russia (GORDIEYEV F.I. 1990: 62, TOPOROV V.N., 1973-2.) They can be found also in the Permian and Finno-Volga languages (cf. Komi Zyr. yuavny, Udm. yuany "to ask" – Let. jautät “to ask”, Mari kaim "a resident of the nearby" – Let. kaiminš “neighbor”). The Balto-Finnic language communication were studied by B. Serebrennikov, G. Knabe, F. Gordieyev, A. Joki. A lot of the Baltic-Mordvinic and Baltic-Mari lexical correspondences gave in one of his works Khalikov (KHALIKOV A.Kh., 1990: 57). In addition, contacts between some Baltic ethnic group and the Mordvins are confirmed by Mordvinic mythology. For example, the name and image of the Mordvinic Thunderic-god Purgine-paz, the son-in-low of god-demiurge Nishke arose under the influence of Baltic mythology (Lit. Perkúnas, Let. Pérkóns, Pr. *Perkunas). The image of the god of thunder, lightning and rain with the similar name origins in Indo-European mythology, but the importance for our research is the existence of such mythological figure by the Thracians, whose name we know in Greek transcription &PI;ερκων. The names of the gods in other Indo-European peoples of the same origin (Slav. Perun, OInd. Parjanya, Hit. Pirva) are somewhat far (IVANOV V.V., TOPOROV V.N., 1991. MFW. Volume 2, 303-304) Hence, the area of worship of god Perkonu/Perginu covered the Baltic, Thracian (Dacian-Thracian) and Mordvinic ethnic areas which had to be located somewhere in adjacency. Consequently, the area of worship of the god Perkon/Pergin encompassed the Baltic, Thracian (Daco-Thracian) and Mordovian ethnic areas, which should have been somewhere in the neighborhood. It should also be added that the ancient Germans, the area of settlements which have been near the Bulgars, could borrow the image one of their gods from the Bulgars, as the Chuvashes have still now a whole pantheon of gods with the word tură "god" in the second part of their name reminiscent of the name of the German-Scandinavian god Thor. The explanation of the Chuvash word for the name of God as a derivative Turk. teŋgri is doubtful for phonological reasons. The Chuvash god-demiurge Sulti tură or the brownie Hurt-Surt could be reflected in the Scandinavian fire giants Surt, who came from somewhere in the south, who after a battle with local gods burn the whole world. A. Khalikov also compares the Chuvash family spirit named ierekh/irikh with the family spirit of the Latvians (gars/geris). He also cites several Baltic-Chuvash lexical correspondences (KHALIKOV J. 1990, 57). Thus, the Balts would have to have some contact also with the ancient Bulgars at a time when they inhabited the right bank of the Dnieper.
The Balts, which remained in their historic homeland, correspond to the range of culture of the Hatched-Ware Culture (HWC). The Dnieper-Dvinsk culture and HWC are very close to each other. The only difference is in the shapes and proportions of the dishes. (ZVERUGO Ya.G. 1990, 32). The Hatched-Ware Culture existed until the middle of the 1st millennium BC. It was distributed in Eastern Lithuania and Central Belarus, it belonged to the ancestors of modern Lithuanians. (VOLKAITE-KULIKAUSKIENE R R, 1990: 15). Its carriers, moving from the right bank of the Berezina along the Daugava River, also reached the coast of the Baltic Sea. Here, the Baltic tribes of the Curonians left their group burial grounds, and on the lower Neman, the Skalvs did. Between the right tributaries of the Neman, the Dubisa and the Yura rivers, there were settlements of the Samogitians and the Zemgals inhabited the north of Lithuania in the headwaters of the Musha Riber. (ibid).
At the beginning of the 1st mill. BC tribes of the Dnieper-Dvinsk culture from Smolensk Dnieper began to move to the western regions of the Volga-Oka watershed (SEDOV V.V., 1990-2: 92). This can be confirmed by many facts. B.A.Serebrennikov pays attention to the data of the Kiev chronicle, according to it, one of the ancient Lithuanian tribes, the Galindians, occupied the basin of the river Protva, lt of the Oka. He writes that M.Vasmer drowed the northern-east boundary of the Baltic toponymics to the river Tsna (SEREBRENNIKOV B.A., 1965). V. Toporov places the most eastern wave of the Baltic-speaking population along the Oka (TOPOROV V.N., 1983: 49). On the other hand, there is evidence in favor of the presence of the Balts in more southern areas. Toporov and Trubachev, examining the hydronymy of the Upper Dnieper, came to the conclusion:
The undoubted presence of Balts on the Seym River has been proved to be true… by the whole congestion Baltic hydronomic in quantities not less than two tens in this area (TOPOROV V.N., TRUBACHIOV O.N. 1962: 231).
As examples, these scholars bring such names of rivers: Obesta (Abesta, Obsta) Kubr (Kubar, Kubera) Vopka, Morocha, Molch, Vabla, Terepsha, Lepta, Lokot’, Raten, Rat’, Tureyka, Zhelen’, Uspert, Rekhta, Zhadinka, etc. However, as we have seen, there are many place names of Anglo-Saxon origin in the Seym basin. The Balts brought with them the Milograd culture, which also occupied some part of the region of the Sosnitsa cylture, but according to L. D. Pobol, these cultures do not have genetic connections between themselves (POBOL L.D. 1983: 16). Obviously, certain differences between them are explained by different ethnicity of their creators, and the common elements are due to cultural influences and borrowings. Everything suggests that the Balts came to the Seym River later than the Anglo-Saxons, pushing them further south. Obviously, this happened already in the Scythian time.
In view of the archaeological data, we can be assumed that part of the eastern Baltic, moving from the watershed of the Dnieper and Berezina to the north, crossed the Western Dvina, while another group of them moved eastward, crossing the Dnieper and forcing out the Iranians from basin of the Desna. Those Balts, who moved northward, created the Dnieper-Dvina culture, and later, driving along the Western Dvina River to the north-west, also reached the sea and became the core of the Latvian ethnicity. The Balts, who moved eastward, became creators of the Yukhnov culture and were later assimilated by the Slavs, and perhaps also by the West-Finnish ethnic groups (mainly by Mordvins). The Balts, remaining in their Urheimat, are corresponded with the Shaded Ware culture. The Dnieper-Dvina and Shaded Ware cultures are very similar to each other. The only difference is in the forms and proportions of the pottery (ZVERUGO Ya.G., 1990: 32). The Shaded Ware culture existed till the middle of the 1st mill. BC and was spread in Eastern Lithuania and Central Belarus, it belonged to the ancestors of the prsent-day Lithuanians (VOLKAITE-KULIKAUSKIENE R R., 1990: 15).
but it is especially concentrated north of the Pripyat River. There are several river names to the south of it, but the largest proportion of Baltic hydronymy is in the Berezina basin (TOPOROV V.N., TRUBACHIOV O.N. 1962, 235;STRYZHAK O.S. 1981).
It looks strange that the experts limited their research to hydronymy and did not investigate thoroughly the names of settlements to the south of Pripyat. As it turned out, traces of the Balts in place names can be found not only in Ukraine, but also in the Balkans and even in the Pre-Caucasus. Baltic toponymy outside the ethnic territory has been inflicted on Google Map (see below).
Baltic place names outside ethnic territories
The map shows how widely the Baltic toponymy was spread in the Balkans, and even in significant numbers, but the presence of the Balts beyond the Danube is also indicated by the Baltimism in the language of the local population. Special Balto-Thracian contacts were noted by V.N. Toporov, J. Nalepa and other linguists. Applying the method of quantitative evaluation of common lexical correspondences, I. Duridanov investigated the connections of the Thracian and akin to it Dacian languages with the Baltic and Slavic languages. Comparing the results, he concluded as follows:
Baltic, Dacian and Thracian tribes at prehistoric time – around the 3rd mill BC – populated adjacent areas, with the first lived close by the Dacians and Thracians. If the Balts bordered on the other side with the Illyrians, left, in my opinion, the question (DURIDANOV IVAN., 1969: 100).
Of course, there is no reason to speak about the neighborhood of the Balts and the Daco-Thracians in the 3rd mill BC, but the fact of the neighborhood is important in itself. No special connections the Slavic languages with Thracian and Dacian Bulgarian linguist is not found, except for small amounts of possible common Dacian-Baltic-Slavic and Thracian-Baltic-Slavic lexical correspondences, how he noted in his conclusions, so there is no reason to believe that somewhere near the Daco-Thracian area were located also the settlements of Slavs. A. Desnitsky reaffirms the conclusion of I. Duridanov. Finding the common features of Albanian and Baltic (including the disappearance of the category neuter), she argues that most of these features are absent in the Germanic and Slavic languages (DESNITSKAJA A.V., 1984: 224). The Balts brought with them the Milograd culture that evolved in the Pidhirtsi one in the Ukraine . As a whole, the area occupied by the Milograd culture, covered the area of the East-Třynec culture, but according to L. Pobol these cultures have no genetic relationship (POBOL L.D., 1983: 16.) Obviously, the differences between them are associated with different ethnic background of their creators, and the common elements caused by cultural influences and borrowings.
Thus, some part of the Balts had to move southward, but herewith they had to drive out the Germans and later to dissolve themselves in the Slavic world. This conclusion results that the ancient Turkic (Bulgarish namely) influences of the Slavic languages do not have matches in the modern Baltic languages (MENGES KARL H., 1990), but these effects were to enclose those Baltic dialects whose speakers populated the country south of the Pripyat .
The Thracians, after short vicinity to the Balts began moving to the Balkan Peninsula, which had been already left by the most part of the Phrygians and the ancient Armenians. This migration, which began in the late 2nd and early 1st millennium BC, may have been due to pressure of Balts from the North and nomadic arrivals from the southeast along the right bank of the Dnieper and stretched for several centuries. Opinion about the coming of the Thracians to the Balkans at this time is generally accepted in the scientific world:
The formation of the Thracian ethno-cultural community is referred by most researchers to the beginning of the Early Iron Age. The peoples of the previous period, in particular the creators of the native Noa and Koslodzheni cultures closely associated with the tribes of the northern Black Sea Region, are considered by Romanian scientists to be included in the Thracian community, but being not the Thracians. The sharp change of cultures in 11-12th centuries. BC, which the researchers observed in the Carpathian-Danube region, are a convincing argument in favor of this conclusion, indicating the emergence of new population here. Just this alien population is considered to be the nucleus of the northern Thracians, assimilating local tribes (MELUKOVA A.I. 1979: 14).
Some part of the Thracians stopped in the basin of the Southern Bug on the way to the Balkans and remained there until about the 8th century BC. The reason for this assumption is the accumulation of settlements of the ethnically unidentified Biloğrudiv culture around the town of Uman that existed in the 11 – 12th centuries BC. According to A. Terenozhkin, the basic and most investigated cluster of the sites of this culture is located as almost continuous array by the radius of 40 km around Uman (TERENOZHKIN A.I., 1961: 6). Some of these sites are located on the banks of the Yatran, which name may be of Thracian origin. Total area of the Biloğrudiv tribes is outlined by A.Terenozhkinas follows:
…their settlements can be met before the steppe zone in the south, to the Dnieper River in the east, to the area of the forest and the right-bank tributaries of the Pripyat in the north and to the Dniester in the west (Ibid: 213-214).
A.Terenozhkin, which studied the Bilogrud and the Chornolis cultures in details, believes that the Bilogrudov clans led quiet, peaceful life. This is evidenced by the absence of hillforts and by the topographic peculiarity of the settlements. In his opinion, toward the beginning of the Scythian period, the Bilogrudov tribes abandoned the Uman’ area for the unknown reasons and probably moved to the basin of the Dnester (Ibid: 12). One might conjecture the Bilogrudiv people have left further to the Balkans. Such assumptions can be confirmed by certain cultural influences of the Bilogrudiv culture on the Thracian Halstatt culture in Moldova:
… the burnished earthenware with carved and impressed decoration appears for the first time in the Bilogrudiv and the Chornolis cultures whence it only could to penetrate beyond the Dniester to Moldova, in the Thracian Halstatt culture at the end of the 8th or at the beginning of the 7th centuries BC. Together with eastern ornament, scoops with ledges on the handle, bowls with cylindrical necks and spherical bodies, and even simple vessels of tulip shapes with punctures on the rim and split by a roller, the all typical for the culture of the Ukrainian forest-steppes, were extended in Moldova where can-form vessels were prevalent (Ibid: 216).
At the same time Iranian tribes of Left-side Ukraine began movement to the Central Asia, but these processes will be considered later.
The southern and southeastern border of their ancestral homeland ran along the Teterev River, beyond which there were already Thracian settlements. The Anglo-Saxons should be considered the creators of the Lebediv culture, since it took shape on the basis of the Soshnitsa culture belonging to the Trzciniec range of cultures (TRC). Obviously, it is formed under the influence of that part of the Thracians, who still remained in the area between the Teteriv and Ros’ rivers, when their bulk moved in to south-west. However, most sites of this culture were found in the triangle between the Dnieper and Desna, less in the area between the Diet and Sula were, although similar sites sporadically occurred even till the river Horyn (Ibid: 445). Some archaeologists believe the Lebediv culture to be the late variant of the Sosnitsia one, but most likely, the similarity of these two cultures was due to their similar ethnicity – the related tribes of the Anglo-Saxons which settled on the left bank of the Dnieper River by two large waves after a certain period of time, participate in creation of these two cultures
Western Baltic group moving along the Daugave River reached the shores of the Baltic Sea too. Beyond the Venta they were mixed with a part of Slavs. Here the Baltic tribes of the Kuronians left their burial grounds and another tribe of the Skalvians left them on the lower Neman. The area of the Samogitians was between the Dubysa and Jura Rivers, the right tributaries of the Neman, on the northern Lithyania in the basin of the Musa River dwelled the Semigallians (VOLKAITE-KULIKAUSKIENE R R., 1990: 14).