Semitic Tribes in Eastern Europe at Prehistoric Time
The question about the origin and the ethnical belonging of famous Trypilla (Tripolje) culture is dark up to this time although the concept of its autochthonous origin generally prevailed among its researchers for a long time. This Chalcolithic (Eneolithic) culture existed on the area of Right-bank Ukraine and Moldova during V-III mill. B.C. and left numerous archaeological sites with a rich archaeological material, which allows us to recreate the look of Trypillians.
Trypillian culture is closely connected with the culture of Cucuteni in Romania and therefore they are collectively called Trypilla-Cucuteni culture. One can say about the origin of these cultures in Asia Minor. In such way, the creators of these both cultures had coming from Asia Minor could be Semites.
Left: The map of the migrations of the creators of Prekukuteni – Early Tripoli culture on the territory of Ukraine
The original of the map [ZALIZNIAK L.L. (Ed). 2005: 108. Fig. 1] was colored by the author].
Legend: I – the settlements of formative phase, II – the settlements of the type Larga-Jijia – Floreşti – Bernashivka, III – settlements between the Dniester and Bug Rivers and on Bug, IV – the first stage of migration, V – the second stage of the migration.
Settlements: 1. Sfântu Gheorghe; 2 – Eresteghin; 3 – Bancu; 4- Borlești; 5 – Traian; 6 – Izvoare; 7 – Ghigoiești -Trudești; 8 – Iași; 9 – Larga-Jijia; 10 – Vlădeni; 11 – Țigănași; 12 – Chetriș; 13 – Stolniceni; 14 – Fundurii; 15 – Bernashivka; 16 – Florești; 17 – Rogojeni; 18 – Haivoron; 19 – Sabatynivka; 20 – Vishnopil; 21 – Kostyantinivka; 22 – Oleksandrivka (according v.G. Zbenovich).
Culture Trypilla-Cucuteni existed on the territory of the Right-Bank Ukraine and Moldova in the VI-III millennium BC and left behind numerous archaeological sites with a rich craniological material, which allows to reproduce the appearance of the Trypillians.
At left: Appearance of the Population of the Trypilla Culture.
A Trypillian woman and man Mediterranean anthropological type from the Vykhvatyntsi tomb. The burial place 35 and 19.
Reconstruction of M. M. Gerasimov on found craniums. (From the book "The Eneolithicum of the USSR").
Considering the contacts between Indo-European and Türkic languages we supposed that a mediator in these contacts could be the language of the population of Trypilla culture, occupying an area adjacent to the settlements of the Turks and Indo-Europeans but standing on a higher level of development than these (STETSYUK VALENTYN, 1998, 59). Recent studies conducted by Ukrainian archaeologists together with British colleagues by modern precision geomagnetic methods, showed that Trypillain population was organized in communities living in large settlements populates sometimes by more than 10 thousand men (RASSMANN KNUT a.o. 2014, 97-133). If there were in Ukraine a thousand sites of Trypillian culture, then the total population of its territory had count up to several million, although previously it was believed that the Trypillian population was approximately 400 thousand. Such mass of people could not disappear without a trace and should make a large cultural impact on newcomers.
At right: The village of Maidanetske in Cherkassy Region.
A reconstruction of the Trypillian site in the Maidanetske local muse-um from 1998. The houses are placed in a forested environment. Photo: Johannes Müller, Kiel (RASSMANN KNUT a.o. 2014, 118)
According to many experts, just as our research, the Trypillians were not Indo-Europeans, nor the Turks, and at the same time their ancestors came from Asia Minor (see the section "The First Neolithic Tribes in Eastern Europe "), so the assumption was made possible linguistic identity Trypillians to the Afro-Asiatic family. The existence of Tripoli culture coincides in time with Seredniy and Pit (Yamna) Culture, occupies an area between the lower Dnieper and Don Rivers. Their creators were ancient Turkic (more on this in the section "Ethnicity of the Neolithic and Eneolithic cultures of Eastern Europe".)
Since the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. some tribes of Turks (mainly ancient Bulgars) have become a massive shift to the right bank of the Dnieper, as it is evidenced by archaeological finds from the obvious signs of Pit culture.
Trypillians: An elderly man of Caucasoid type and a girl of Mediterranean anthropological type.
Burials in the settlement of Nezvisko III and from the Vykhvatyntsi tomb 5 respectively. Graphic reconstruction by M.M. Gerasimov on found on found craniums. (From the book "The Eneolithicum of the USSR").
At the same time the crossing of the Turks on the Right Bank is evidenced by also found among Trypillian burials skulls of people of a completely different physical type (cf. Illustration above).
At the situation when a Tripillian population could have contacts with ancient Bulgars, that if the ancestors of the Chuvash, the assumption about Semitic ethnicity of Trypillians can be confirmed by the presence of Afro-Asiatic roots in the Chuvash language. In addition to the Turks, Trypillians had neighbors also some Indo-European tribes, what could also be reflected in their languages. Purposefully searches of Semitic lexical correspondences between, on the one hand, Semitic and Indo-European and Turkic, on the other hand, gave some material to talk more confident about Semitic origin of Trypillians. This idea is not new and has previously expressed by some researchers, with the works of which the author is unfamiliar, but only know about them from newspaper articles.
A fantastic idea of Sumerian roots of Chuvash people is widespread among them now. It was formed largely by G. Yegorov. There are in his book (YEGOROV GENADIY, 1993)
many dubious and far-fetched facts, but clearly, he had grounds for such assumption in some parallels between the Chuvash and Middle Eastern languages and myths, which are actually displayed the Bulgarish-Trypillya cultural connections.
Some of the Turkic words, including Chuvash having correspondences in the Semitic languages can be attributed to the common stock of the Nostratic languages. For example, the Turkic word adam “a man” ot Tat., Uzb., Kytg., etc arča “pine-tree” corresponding Ar. erze, Hebr. arez “cedar” a.o.
Significantly more words of Semitic origin were borrowed in the Turkic languages out of Arabic in the process of Islamization. There are some in the Chuvash. For example, Ar maskara “mockery” – Chuv myskara “amusement”, Ar miškin “miserable” – Chuv měskěn “lamentable”, Ar šabaka “net” – Chuv sapaka “cluster”.
However, the Islamization of the population of the Middle Volga, which began with 922, did not cover the Chuvash in the mass. According to Ibn Fadlan only the top of the Chuvash people passed to Islam – feudal nobility, merchants, townspeople (SKVORTSOV M.I., 1995: 14). Therefore, many Arabic words could penetrate in the Chuvash language via Tatar. At the same time, some borrowings from Arabic are very old and belong to the sphere of pagan beliefs. For example, in the Chuvash mythology has a god of abundance Pereket tour (out of Ar baraka "grace").
The question arises why the pagans have borrowed the name of one of their gods from the Arabs, Muslim, alien to the masses. And there are a lot of such borrowing. R.G. Akhmetiyanov writes:
… the Chuvash language has a lot of the Arab-Persian words which do not occur or are not active in the modern Tatar dialects or differing sharply from the Tatar-sounding parallels. Chuvash researchers believe them own words, borrowed in ancient Bulgars period, ie not directly connected to the influence of Tartar (AKHMETIYANOV R.G., 1978: 121).
Thus, in the attempt made to find in the Chuvash language possible borrowing from the Semitic, which retained analogues in both Arabic and ancient Hebrew, attention was drawn to the presence of these same roots in Indo-European. In particular, there is reason to talk about cultural and linguistic relations between the Semites and the Germans:
Ancient Germania shows a number of striking similarities to the old Semitic world in language and culture.
Words such as Proto-Germanic *fulka "division of an army", *sibjo “extended family”, *aþal-l/aþili “noble (noun/adjective)”, *maguz/*magaþ(i)z “boy/girl”, which only occur in Germanic or at best in some neighboring languages and posses no generally accepted Indo-European derivation, have intriguing Semitic etymologies (VENNEMANN DOOR THEO, gen. NIERFELD, 2012, vıı-vııı)
Let us consider these words
1. Theo Vennemann compares Old Germanic *fulka (Eng folk, Ger. Volk and also Eng. ploug, Germ. Pflug a.o.) with Hebr plC, a family of related roots including plg, all meaning "to divide, separate" (VENNEMANN THEO, 2005, 27). The Semitic root has good matches in Chuvash: pülĕkh "a distributor" (Chuvash ancient deity) and pulkkǎ "flock", "crowd"
2. Old Germanic *sibjō (Goth sibja, OE sibb, Ger Sippe "family", "kin", "clan" have a match in Chuv syp “generation”, sypă “knee” (as "generation" too)
3. Old Germanic *magaþi (Goth magaþ-s, OE mæged, Ger Magd "young woman", "girl" – cf. Chuv “măkka “endearment, usually to children”.
4. Old Germanic *aþal-l/aþili (OE æđel “noble”, Ger Adel "nobility") – cf. Chuv “atalan “to develop, grow”.
Thus, Semitic loan-words in the Chuvash language gaining weight when they have matches not only in Arabic and/or in Hebrew, but also in modern European languages. The search for such matches was done and by the way a few words was found in the Ukrainian, Hungarian and Romanian languages without proper etymology and having no matches in Chuvash, but they can be associated with the Semitic words. They were taken to consideration too. In such way, a list of hypothetical Trypillian words was put. Of course, some parallel can look more or less doubtful but chance words can be thrown out always. It is better to consider a doubtful fact as to lose an interesting matter.
Tryp *afuna “pea, berry” [Hebr אֲפוּנָה (afuna) “pea”] – Rom afîna “bilberries”, Ukr dial. afyny “bilberries”, Lat aveva “oat”, Tur, Uygur evin “seed”.
Tryp *arb “barley” [Hebr בָּר (bar) “corn”)] – Chuv urpa, common Turkic arpa “barley”, Alb. elb “barley” (Thrak *alb “barley”), Gr. αλφι “barley”.
Tryp *areh “spider” [Hebr ארוג (arug) “woven”, אֶרֶג (areg) “fabric, cloth”] – Chuv erešmen “spider”, Gr αραχνη “spider”, Lat araneus “spider”.
Tryp *aruz “rye” [Hebr אוֹרֶז (orez) “rice”, Ar. ruz “rice”] – Chuv. yraš, Kaz. arys and other similar Turkic “rye”, Rus. rož' and other similar Slavic "rye", Lit. rugys “rye”, OE. ryge, Ger. Roggen “rye”.
Tryp *bajer “spring, source” [Hebr בְּאֵר (beer) “spring, pit”] – Ukr bayura “pool, slop”.
Tryp *balta “axe, hammer” [Ar. ballut “oak”, Hebr פְּלָדָה (pelada) “steel”, בַּלוּט (balut) “acorn”]. Obviously first hammers were made out of oak block with bough used as holder therefore the name of hammer was similar to the name of oak. Later the name of hammer was transferred on stone or metal axe. The names of hammer, axe, and other tools or arms are based on similar roots in many languages of several language families: balt, bolt, molt, bart, palt, purt etc (wide-spread Turkic balta “axe, beetle, hammer”, Het malatti “weapon”, Gr παλτρον “lance”, Toch peret “axe”, Lat. martellum “large hammer”, bardicum “lance, small axe”, common Slavic moltú “hammer”, Eng bolt, Germ Barte “small axe”, Bolzen “bolt”, Port balde “spade”, Osset färät “axe”, Chuv purtă 'an axe", Udm, Komi purt “a knife”, Hung bárd “axe” etc). It should be supposed that all these words descended from some Nostratic root, but they were abundant therefore they, permanent transferring from one language to other, became different forms and meanings. Maybe, old Nostratic name of oak “balut” kept in nowaday Germ Wald “forest”, Slavic bolto, Lombard palta, Alb balt¸ “swamp” (the sense “forest” and “swamp” are often confused). M. Vasmer considered Ukr., Rus. bulat "Damascus steel" as loan-word from some Turkic language but its source was Pers. pūlād "steel" (VASMER MAX. 1964: 238). Other Iranian languages have similar words with the sense "an oak" (e.g. Kurd. palūd). Thus, it is peripatetic word though having Semitic origin.
Tryp *ban “child, fruit” [Ar ibn, Hebr בֵּן (ben) “son, child”] – Cuv (Dial.) pan “apple tree”, Lat pomum “fruit”, Eng bean, Ger Bohne.
Tryp *burg “cylinder, tower” [Ar burj’ “tower”, Hebr בֹּרֶג (borag) “a screw, bolt”] – Gr πυργοσ “tower”, Lat burgus “castle, tower”, Chuv purak “bast, bast-basket (cylindrical)”, Karach buruu “fence”, Germanic *burg (German Burg “castle”).
Tryp *daba “nature” [Hebr טֶבַע (teba) “nature, character”, Ar tabi'a „nature”] – good matches are present in Lith daba "nature, kind, manner", Lat dāba "nature", to them Slav. words doba meaning "time, age" (Blr "character, face"), Chuv. tapă "youth festival at summer beginning"; similar words in the Iranian languages meaning "nature" are perhaps borrowed from Arabic.
Tryp *fahar “white” [Hebr פַּחַר (fahar) “white clay”, בָּהִיר (bahir) "white", Ar. faxar „pottery, porcelain”] – Hung feher “white”.
Tryp *farah “to fly” [Hebr. פֶּרַח (farah) “to flutter, fly about”, Ar. "to scattar"] – Chuv părakh “to throw”.
Tryp *gaba, gabal “great body” [Hebr. גַב (gav) “hinter part of, spine”, Ar kafal “croupe”, j’amal “camel”, Phoen gebal “mountain”]. – Wild horses inhabited the steppe of Ukraine at Herodotus’ time, but they were domesticated by Trypillians and Old Türks got horse together with the name from them (common Türkic jaby “horse”). Although Türks have other, the own name of horse at. The word jaby was borrowed by Old Greeks (Gr ιπποσ “horse”) and by Finno-Ugrians (Veps hebo, Fin hepo, Est. hobu, Hung lova “horse”). Trypillian root gaval also gave the name of horse which Indo-European were borrowed from Trypillians without of Türkic mediation (Lat caballus “horse”, Gr καβαλλησ “working horse”, Lit kumele “mare”, Sl kobyla “mare”, Pers kaval “swift-footed horse”). Evidently, Chuv haval “force” can be referred here.
Tryp *gavr, kaur “embers” [Ar j’amr, “embers”, Hebr. כּוּר (kur) “furnace, melting pot, forge”] – Chuv kăvar “embers”.
Tryp *gaz “goose” [Ar vaz, Hebr אַוָזָה (avaza) “goose”] – Tur, Turk gaz, Chuv hur , other Turkic “goose”.
Tryp *habak “some kind of grass-plant” [Ar habak bot. “basil”] – Chuv hupah “burdock”.
Tryp. *haman “faithful, reliable” [Hebr. אָמוֹן (amun), Ar amin “faithful”] – Chuv haman “faithfulniss, solidity”.
Tryp *hason “to have profit” [Hebr. חָסֵן (khasen) “to keep, save, economize” Ar xasin “fertile”] – Chuv xasine “treasure”, Hung haszon “profit”, Ukr xosen “use, profit”.
Tryp *hom “father-in-law” [Hebr חָם (xham) “father-in-law”] – Chuv hun’ “father-in-law”.
Tryp *hota “to seek in marriage” [Ar xatan, Hebr חוֹתֵן (khoten) “father-in-law”] – Chuv xăta “father of son-, daughter-in-law”.
Tryp *huša “hut” (àð. huša “hut”)- Chuv xüšĕ “hut, cabin, light house” – Ger Haus, Eng house.
Tryp *kad “pot, barrel” [Ar kadah “goblet”, Hebr כַּד (kad) “pitcher”] – Ukr kad’ and other similar Slavic words “barrel”, Gr καδοσ “pitcher, jug, pail”, Alb kade “barrel”, Hung kád “barrel”.
Tryp *kart “village” [Phoen kirjat, Hebr קֶרֶת (keret) “town, city”] – Chuv karta “palisade”, Germanic *garda, gardon (Got gards “house”, Old Eng geard “yard”, German Garten “garden”). Similar words are present in Slavic, Celtic, Greek, Latin, and in other Indo-European languages, but consonantism of these words contradicts to the rules of Indo-European languages, therefore one can think that this word has been borrowed from some other language.
Tryp. *kemel “reward” [Hebr. גְמוּל (gemul) “reward”, Ar. kamal “aqually as”] – Chuv. kěměl “silver”, silver is called in other Turkic languages called kümüš in full compliance with the phonology of these languages. More detailed about change of the meaning in the section Sketch on the Development of Merchandise in Eastern Europe at Prehistoric Times.
Tryp *keser “carrot” [Ar j’azar, Hebr גֶזֶר (gezer) “carrot”]. This word was borrowed only by Western Türkic tribes which had more close contacts with Trypillians: Chuv, Tat kišer, Turkm kešer “carrot”.
Tryp *kors “scone, bread” [Ar qursa “scone”] – Ukr, Blr korž “scone”, Fin kyrsä “bread”, Veps kürz “fritter, cake”, maybe Afg kulča “pastry, cookie, biscuit”. The words of this root are widrly-distributed among various languages and have meanings “bread”, “corn”, “sheaf”, “millet”, “besom” etc: Arm xurdz, Kurd gurz, Osset kyris “sheaf”, Chuv kurăs “cluster of bast”, xuraç “food”, Komi korös’, Mansi kuras’ “besom”, Germ Hirse “millet”, Let garsa “gout-weed , Aegopodium podagraria ” (umbrella eatable plant), Rus (dialect) koros, korost “stack of flax sheafs”, Gr koros “satiation”, Let cers “bush”, Old Eng kors “î÷åðåò” (from Celtic). With the change r in l: Gr κολλιχ “round bread”, Hung köles “millet”, Let kulis “sheaf”, Slav kolsú (Ukr, Rus kolos “ear”, Cz, Slov klas etc). Some names of gods can also be added here: Latin goddess of vegetation Ceres, East-Slavic god Khors. Maybe, Ukr koryst’ “use”, Osset xorz “good”, Rus khoroshy “good”, Germ Horst “bush-wood” are belonged to this root.
Tryp *lavh “board, plank” [Ar lavha “board”, Hebr לוּחַ (luxa) “board, table”] – Slav lava, lavka “bench” (Ukr, Blr lavka, Pol ławka, Rus lava, Cz lava etc). Chuv lapka “shelf”, lav “cart”, (first carts were ordinary board on wheels).
Tryp *lis “thief” [Ar lis “thief”] – Slav lis, lisa “fox” (Ukr, Serb lys, Rus lisa, Pol lis, Sloven lis etc). The fox has by-name “thief” in Slavic folklore.
Tryp *marh “meadow” [Ar marh “meadow”] – Ukr morih “thick young grass”. Maybe also Ukr marzhyna “horned cattle” and marha “cattle”).
Tryp *masa “to feel by touch” [Ar massa “to touch”, Hebr מישש (mišaš) “fingered”] – Chuv masa “exterior”, Ukr matsaty, Slovak macat “to feel by touch”.
Tryp *nur „light, fire, red” [Ar nur „light”, Hebr. נור (nur "fire"] – Chuv. nar “ruddiness, roses”, "nice".
Tryp *parsa “beam” [Ar farsiya “board”, farsat “bed”] – Chuv părăs “beam”.
Tryp *pas “strip, strap” [Hebr. פַּס (pas) “strip, strap, rail”] – Chuv puša “whip, lash”, Pol, Ukr pas “belt, girdle”.
Tryp *peruti “fur, fell” [Hebr. פַּרוָתִי (peruti) “fur, fell”] – Chuv. pětrě “leathern sack”, Gmc. *fodra “fur, fell” (Ger. Futter “fur, fell”).
Tryp *rešet “net” [Hebr רשת (rešet) “network”] – Slav rešeto (Ukr, Rus, Bulg, Serb, Slov rešeto etc “sieve, riddle”).
Tryp *sabon “soap” [Ar sabun, Herb סַבּוֹן (sabon) "soap"] – Chuv. supăn, Lat sapo, sapōne, Eng soap, Ger Seife a.o. – all “soap”.
Tryp *sak “sack” [Ar. saki "wineskin", Hebr שַׂק (šak) “sack”] – Chuv šak “a fishing net, coop”, Lat saccus “sack”, Gr σακκοσ “sack”, Ukr, Rus sak “fishing-tackle in the form of sack” and other similar Slavic and Germanic words.
Tryp *sameh “glad, joyous” (Hebr שַׂמֵחַ (sameakh “happy, glad, joyous”) – Chuv savăk “joyful, gladness”.
Tryp *šap- “to strew” [Hebr שְׁפּוֹך (šofekh) “to spill, pour”] – Chuv sap “to strew, pour”, Slavik sypati (Ukr sypaty, Rus sypat’ , Cz sypati etc “to strew, pour”).
Tryp *šart “condition” [Ar. šarts, “condition”, Hebr שָרָת (sharat) "server"] – Chuv šǎrt “oath”.
Tryp *seret “strip, strap” [Ar šarit, סֶרֶט (seret) "ribbon, strip, belt"] – Chuv serete “plank”, Kurd sirat “way”, Rom., Ukr “Seret” (names of several rivers in Ukraine and Romania).
Tryp *tahal “spleen” [Ar taal, Hebr טְחוֹל (tehol) "spleen"] – Chuv, Tat and other talak, Yak taal, Khak tölön, tileen, “spleen”. The oldest Türkic form is presented in Yakut language.
Tryp *taham “taste” [Hebr טַעַם (taam) “taste”, Ar ta’am “taste”] – Chuv těhěm “taste”.
Tryp *tavar “thing, object of exchange” (Hebr דָבָר (davar) “word”, “thing”, “something”) – Chuv tăvar "salt", Ukr, Rus tovar “goods” and “cattle”, Arm tavar “sheep”, “flock”, Kum tuuar “flock”, Tur tavar “property”, “cattle”, Balk, Crim-Tat tu’ar “cattle” etc. The salt was the main export product for Old Bulgarians therefore it became sense “goods” (STETSYUK VALENTYN, 1998: 57). Many Iranian languages have the words tabar-teber-tevir “axe”, but Finno-Ugrian words of this root have sense “textile” (Saam tavjar, Mar tuvyr, Chant tegar). All these things are objects of barter and trade, that is to say goods.
Tryp *tiše “grass” [Hebr דֶשֶׁא (deše) “grass, sward, herbage”] – Chuv těšě “grain”, Mord tiše “grass, hay”.
Tryp *tora “unwritten law, customary” [Hebr תּוֹרָה (tora) “law”] – Chuv türe “judge”, Tat türä “law”, “judge”, Tur töre “customs” etc.
Tryp *vaita “cabin, house” [Ar bajt, Hebr בַּיִת (bait) “house”] – Chuv vite “cow-house”, Lat *baita “cabin, house”. Restored Latin word is present in some nowaday Italian dialects (MEYER-LÜBKE, 1992: 70).
Tryp *verah “flower” [Ar firh „branch”, Hebr פֶּרַח (perakh) “flower”] – Hung virág “flower”. This parallel entails a whole chain of thoughts. There is in Latin the word virga “twig, rod” having no correspondences in Indo-European but refers to Old Turkic bergä, “twig, birch, whip”, Xak, Uyg berge “whip”. Sir Gerard Clauson writes: “berge – a whip an old word ending in –ge. It is suggested.., that it is a loan-word from Latin virga ‘a rod, a stock’ obtained through Middle Persian but there does not seen to be any trace of the word in Persian, and the theory is importable.” The Hungarian virgácz “twig, birch” which borrowing from Latin is doubtful can be referred to them. In this case, Hung virgone “agile, nimble, lively” and Chuv virkěn “to race, rush” also correspond to these words. Obviously, it is a wandering word which traces are present in many languages having different but similar meaning (e.g. Erzya verka “quick”, Rus birka and other similar Slavic words “small twig”, “catkin”, Ger Birke “birch”, Kurd wurg “lively”). If the creators of the Tripilla culture were Semites, the all these words can have an origin word similar to the Ar firh and Heb. perax "flower". Then Lat virgō "virgin" of unknown origin (W.) should be referred here (cf. "deflowering").
Tryp *vokor “bull” or “cow” [Ar bakara “cow”, Hebr בָּקָר (bakar) “cattle”] – Chuv văkăr, Tur öküz, Tat ögüz etc “bull”, Lat vacca “cow”. Ukr dial. vakar “herdsman of cattle” – out of Romanian.
Tryp *xarta "a piece of textile" [Ar qartas "a paper, leaf", Hebr. חָרוֹת (kharut) "cutting"] – Chuv khărta "patch, clout", Gr χαρτησ, Lat carta "a paper, leaf".
Tryp *zivit “resin” [Hebr זֶפֶת (zefet) “tar, pitch, resin”, Ar zift, Syr zifta “resin”] – Arm jivt “resin”, Ukr zhyvyts’a and other similar Slavic words “galipot”, Ger. Saft "sap", Gift “poison”.
Semitic origin of the Trypillians can be confirmed by explanation of "dark" place names of Right-Bank Ukraine by means of Hebrew. As settlements of Trypillians numbered several thousand inhabitants, at least some of them must have to exist for a long time and keep their original names. If it will be found a sufficient number of names interpreted on Hebrew, it would show not only Trypillians Semitic origin, but also mean that given by them names existed at least six thousand years.
At right: Place names of possible Semitic origin on the area of Trypillian culture.
To decipher the name of the village of Bakota now flooded by waters of the Dniester reservoir, Hebr. בִּקתָה (bikta, bekata) "hut, shack, shanty, shed" suits well.
Maybe Herb. בַּר (bar) "son, boy" and שֵׁד (shed) 1. "demon, devil", 2. "imp" is hidden in the name of the town of Bershad of Vinnytsia Region. It is unlikely that the devil could present in the name of the settlement, but the combination of "imp-boy" if very possible.
Deciphering the similar name of the Romanian city of Bârlad is more complicated. It is difficult to find an acceptable pair to the second part of the word that can be associated with Hebr. לָעַד (lada) "forever, eternally" despite the fact that the choice is great. Hebr. בִּירָה (bira) "sout" suits best by meaning.
The name of the village of Dokhno and flowing here the Dokhna River well corresponds Hebr. דוֹחַן (dokhan) "millet" according agricultural economy of Trypillians. The name of the grain, which was a commodity in the barter trade, could give names to other commodities in some languages, such as cattle and the like – Chech. daükhny "property, cattle" (aü – a front vowel).
Convincing explanation of the origin of the name of the capital of Moldova Chisinau is absent. Phonetically and situational Hebr קָשֶׁה (kashe) "hard, harsh, tough" and עַנָב (anav) "grape"
A large Trypillian settlement was found on the bank of the Dniester River in the Chernivtsi Region on the outskirts of the village Moshanets. The name of the village can have Semitic origin: cf. Hebr.
מוֹשָׁבָה (moshava) "colony, settlement, village, dominion".
The settlement of the early Trypillian culture is also located in the outskirts of the village of Sabatinovka in Blagovischensk district of Kirovograd Region. The name is well understood with the help of Heb. שׁבּת (shabat) "saturday".
Hebr. סֶרֶט – (seret) "ribbon, strip, belt" suits well for explanation the name the Seret River, the left tributary of the Dniester and the left tributary of the Danube.
Less likely is Semitic origin of the name of the village Talianki of Cherkassy Region, near which found traces of a large Trypillian, numbering 2,100 housing units in the area studied by geomagnetic method of 170 hectares (RASSMANN KNUT. 2014: 110). If you cannot find a more reliable interpretation, the name may be connected with Hebr. תִליוֹן (talion) "something hanging, a pendant, medallion".
There was a city of Tyras at the mouth of the Dniester River in ancient times. The city of Tira (טִירָה) exists in Israel. In Hebrew the word טירה (Tira) means "castle". Of course, the Trypillians had no castles, but a fortified settlement could have such name.
At that time, as linguists are not engaged in the matter of ethnicity of the Trypillians, the question of its autochthonity is now finally resolved by archaeologists:
… It can be argued that the old autochthonous concept of searching "local" components of Trypillian culture has exhausted its potential and needs to stay in the historiography of the twentieth century. Now we believe that the territory of Ukraine, which was held by Trypillian culture in the Copper Age, was a part of the ecumene of agricultural civilizations of ancient Europe (BURDO N.B. 2003: 15).
If linguists will agree with the opinion of archaeologists, anyway, they did not find any linguistic clue for the enigma about ethnicity of the Trypillians, antil they will agree to the fact that the ancient homeland of Turks was in Europe.