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Nostratic Languages. / The Urheimat of the / Common Nostratic Heritage in Vocabularies of Türks and

Common Nostratic Heritage in Vocabularies of Türks and Indoeuropeans


At the present time the phylum of the Nostratic languages consist of Indo-European, Turkic (wrongly with them they include Altaic), Afro-Asiatic (formerly known as Semito-Hamitic), Uralic, Dravidian, and Kartvelian. However, this group may be joined by other languages if searching for Nostratic heritage in different languages will be carried out more thoroughly than is done now. It's not an easy work, because for thousands of years that have passed since the existence of the Nostratic community, original language forms in some languages have disappeared, others have changed their sound structure or basic meaning. On the other hand, later borrowings more complicate the establishment of Nostratic kinship. However, if detected matches in languages of different families, that seem to be at first glance random, study more deeply by inductive method, certain patterns can be set that will allow to work more effectively.

Some linguists still deny the existence of the Nostratic language community, but there is quite strong evidence of its existence. One of them could be the name of a female person, which in the original meaning is preserved in the Yakut language in the form d'axtar "a women". It has matches in Finno-Ugric and Indo-European for calling a daughter (Veps. t'ütar, Erz. teyter', Est. tütar, Fin. tytür, Ger. Tochter, Gr. θυγαθηρ, OInd. duhitar a.o.). Perhaps, they should also involve Hung. tesvér "a sister, brother".J. Pokorny, restored a root of the Indo-European word as *dhug(h)əter, deduced it inexplicably from *dheuhdh "to swing, shake, blow." On the contrary, there is in the etymological dictionary of Turkic languages (SEVORTIAN E.V. 1980: 245-247) an ancient Turkic root doğ-, generating words meaning "to born, bear" (Tur. doğmak, Turkm. dogurmak etc.), However, the Yakut word didn't noted in the proper article of the dictionary. It is doubtful that E. Sevortyan didn't know the Yakut words, but obviously he did not connect it with this root. Connection really is not obvious, but there is in the ancient Turkic language dictionary (NADELAYEV V.N. a.o.. 1969) the word toγtur as an incentive verb from toγ- "to born, appear, arise". A large number of words of this root in Turkic languages having similar meaning says that it is very old. Obviously, it corresponds in the Indo-European languages to *dei- "to appear" i its suffix extension *deik- "to shows itself". Currently, the largest number of units of the Nostratic fund was found in the Turkic and Indo-European languages. Below are some more or less convincing examples:

PIE *am(m)a "mother", one of oldest Nostratic words presented in the Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, languages (in Turkic am "vulva").

PIE *ambh- cloud, rain (Lat imber, Gr ombros, OInd abhra etc downpour, gush, cloud, rain ) Türkm jagmyr, Chuv çumăr, Tat jaŋğır, Uzb jomğyr, Tur yağmur rain etc.

PIE *an- in the Indo-European languages "ancestor" ("father", "mother"), in Turkic "mother".

PIE *atos, atta- "father", sometimes "mother", one of oldest Nostratic words presented in the Indo-European, Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Abkhaz-Agyghe, Nakh-Degestani languages.

PIE *aulos "ravine, lowland, settlement" (Lat alvus , Gr άυλοσ, Russian ulitsa , and other Indo-European) common Türkic aul "village".

PIE *bheleg to shine, to burn (Lat fulgeo, Gr φλεγω, Lit blykšti, Sl blikati, bleskŭ a.o.) Tur balkir shine, Tat balku to shine a.o. Perhaps Tur. belgi sign belongs here too.

PIE *bher to bear, to take (Lat fero, Gr φερω, Sl bĭrati, a.o.) common Turkic be:r to give (Turkm bermek, Turvermek, Karach, Balk berirgea.o.)

PIE *bheug to bend (Got biugan, OA bugan, OInd bhujati, Sl bŭgati) Turkm, Turbükmek, Tat bögü, Karach, Balk bügerge to bend a.o.

PIE *bhor to turn (Lat forare, OA borian, Gr φυρω ) common Turkic bur (Turkm, Turburmak, Tat boru, Uzb buramoq to twist a.o.)

PIE *dek right (Lat dexter, Gr δεξιοσ, Sl desnŭ a.o.) common Turkic dik/dek strait, level (Turkm dikan strait, Turdik vertical, Chuv tikěs, Uzb tekis level a.o.)

PIE *der- (Gr δερα skin, δερω "to scin", Got gatairan, Rus drat a.o.) common Turkicderi skin, Chuv tir , .

PIE *dheub deep (Germ tief, Gr βυθοσ a.o.) common Turkic düjp (Turkm düjp, Karach, Balk tüb, Tat tüp ).

PIE *ghabh to take, to snatch (Lat habeo, Got giban, Sl gabati, Lat gabenti, a.o.) Turkm gapmak, Yak xap to catch, Tur kapmak to snatch, Tat kabu to take a.o.

PIE *gieu to chew (OE ceowan, Germ kauen, Sl žĭvati, Pers jävidän, Gil javəstən a.o.) Tur gevelemek, Uzb kavšamoq, Karach, Balk küüšenirge to chew a.o.

PIE *kes to cut (Lat castrare, κεαζω, Sl kosa, kositi, Lit gabenti, a.o.) common Turkic kes- to cut (Turkm, Tur kesmek, Karach, Balk keserge, Kaz kesu a.o.)

PIE *kai-ur-t cave, pit (Lat cavea, Gr καιατα, OInd kevata a.o.) Turkm govak cave, Tur kovuk hollow, burrow, Chuv xăvăl hollow a.o.

PIE *ker hoarfrost (Arm saŕn, Sl sernŭ, Lit šeŕkšnas, OIs hjarn a.o.) common Turkic qyraw hoarfrost (Turkm gyrav, Kaz, Karach, Balk qyrau, Kyrg kyroo a.o.)

PIE *kers dark (Gr καρυμον, Sl čĭrnŭ, OInd kŕsna a.o.) common Turkic qara- black (Tur, Gag, Tat kara, Karach, Balk, Kaz qara a.o.)

PIE *kes to scratch, scrape (Gr κεσκεον, Sl česati, Lat kasyti a.o.) Turkm gašamak, Tur kaşımak, Karach, Balk qašyrğa to scratch, scrape a.o.)

PIE *reuĝ ro roar, neigh (Gr. ἐρυγόντα "roaring", Lat. rūgīre "to roar", Rus. rzhat' etc.) Tat., Bash. ükür-, Kaz. aqyru, Karach., Balk. ökür- to roar etc. Est. röökima "roar", Saam. rēgke "to cry", rokmaltaš "to neigh" etc.

PIE *skel to cut, split (Gr σκαλλω, Got skilja, Lit skelti a.o.) Turkm čalmak, Karach, Balk čalyrğa to mow, cut, Tat čalgy , Kaz šalgy scythe a.o.

PIE *skep/kep to hit, hack (Gr σκηπτοσ, σκοπτω, Lat scapula, Lit kapoti a.o.) Tur çapa mattock, Chuv çap to hit, Tat čabu to cut a.o.)

PIE *ster dung (Lat stercus, Sl stĭrvĭ, Nor dial. stor a.o.) Tur çirkef mud, dung, Gag čürük mud, dung, Karach, Balk čirirge to rot a.o.)

PIE *tek to weave, to plait (Lat texere, Gr τυκοσ, Sl tŭkati, . tekem a.o.) common Turkic doqa- "to weave" (Tur dokumak, Turkm dokamak, Kaz toqu a.o.)

PIE *ual strong (Lat valeo, Got waldan, Sl vlastĭ, a.o.) Turkm, Kaz uly, Tur, Gag ulu, Karach, Balk oly great a.o.

PIE *udh- udder (OInd udhar, ουθαρ, Germ Euter a.o.) Old Turk udh cow.

PIE *uegu- (at Pokorny maybe, false) or *uksōn (at Kluge) bull, ox (OInd uksā, Got auhsa, Germ Ochse, Toch okso, a.o.) Tur, Turkm, Gag, Karach, Balk öküz, Kaz ögiz, Chuv văkăr ox. Kluge mind possible loaning of Indo-European word out some unknown language.

PIE *uel "to turn" (Lat volvo, Arm. gel-u-m, Gr ειλεω) Tat ejlenderu, Tur ayla(n)mak, Uzb ajlantirmoq to turn, Karach, Balk ajlanyu turning.

Perhaps some of the parallels cited here are casual, but the author considered as his duty to take also doubtful cases, it is better to take into consideration all the possibilities, rather than just throw something interesting or even important.

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