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Valentyn Stetsyuk (Lviv, Ukraine)

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Ancient Anglo-Saxon Place Names in Asia


When searching for ancient Anglo-Saxon place names in Continental Europe., it was found that most of them is in Eastern Europe and one of their clusters falls on the territory of the former Rostov-Suzdal principality and in the immediate neighborhood (see Google map below). This and other facts gave reason to assume that in the middle of the first millennium AD the Anglo-Saxons laid the foundations of Russian statehood. However, there was no mention in the annals of the presence of the people significantly different in language from the rest of the population of the principality. Of course, there were not many Anglo-Saxons, they constituted only the ruling elite of the tribal alliance known in history as Murom. There, however, it is difficult to assume that they completely disappeared among the local Finno-Ugrians and the Slavs arriving here later. Without making certain assumptions, but only continuing the search for Anglo-Saxon toponymy, I noticed that some of the names of settlements have duplicates in Siberia and the Far East. After expanding the field of exploration beyond the Urals, it turned out that this was not an accident, but a certain regularity. Discovered new Anglo-Saxon toponyms stretched out in a narrow strip from the Urals to Primorye. The reasons that forced the Anglo-Saxons to leave their homes, can only be assumed, since the beginning of their movement beyond the Urals and further eastward is unknown.




Anglo-Saxon place names in Eastern Europe


The direction of the search for place names in Asia was identified by names in Eastern Europe, already recognized as Anglo-Saxon, such as Markovo (seven cases), Markova (five cases), Firsovo (four cases), Akhtyrka, Firstovo, Fofonovo, Churilovo (๑์. The Complete List of Anglo-Saxon Place Names in Continental Europe). In general, we can most confidently speak of the following place names in the direction from west to east:

Upper and Low Tagil on the Tagil River in Sverdlovsk Regiom – OE. tægel "tail".

Neviansk, a town in Sverdlovsk Region – OE. neowe "new", ġien "again".

Markova, three villages in Prigorod, Slobodo-Turinsk district, Talica urban district in Sverdlovsk Region, a vallage in Uporovo district in Tyumen Region and a village in Irkutsk district os Irkutsk Region – OE. mearc "border, end, district", "sign", mearca "a signed area".

Firsovo, a village in Turinsk urban district of Sverdlovsk Region, villages in Pervomaysk district of Altai Krai, Sretensk district of Zabaykalsky Krai, Dolinsk urban district of Sakhalin Region – OE. fyrs "furze, gorse, bramble".

Chetkarino, a village in Pyshma district of Sverdlovsk Region – OE. ciete "closet, cabin", carr "rock".

Miass, a city in Chelabinsk Region – OE. meos "swamp, bog".

Markovo, villages in the Uvelsky district of the Chelyabinsk Region, in the Zavodoukovsk district of the Tyumen Region, and in the Kuibyshev district of the Novosibirsk Region, a former village on the bank of the Yenisei, now a natural area in the Turukhansky district of the Krasnoyarsk Region, Lesozavodsky urban district of Primorsky Krai – OE. mearc "border, end, district", "sign", mearca "a signed area".

Churilovo, a village in Krasnoarmeysky district of the Chelyabinsk Region – OE ceorl "man, husband, peasant".

Kharino, villages in Krasnoarmeysky district of the Chelyabinsk Region, Omsk district of the Omsk Region, in the Iskitimsky district of the Novosibirsk region – OE hara "hare".

Iskitim, a town in Novosibirsk Region – OE. ieska, geoxian "to sob", team "tribe, family".

Great Riga, a village in Shumikha district of Kurgan Region – OE ryge "rye".

Shadrinsk, a town in Kurgan Region – OE. *sceader "protector" out of scead "protection, safeguard".

Vagina, s village in a rural settlement Yurminskoye of Tyumen Region– OE wagian "move, shake".

Rezanova, a village in Vikulovsky district of Tyumen Region – OE. rāsian "explore", racian "drive, lead".

Firstovo, a village in the Bolsheukovsky district of the Omsk region – OE fyrst "first".

Atrachi, a village on the shore of a lake of the same name in the Tyukalinsky District of the Omsk Region – OE. ātor, ætrig "poison, toxin".

Ingaly, a village in the Bolsherechensky district of the Omsk Region – OE. Ing god's name, āl "fire".

Akhtyrka, a village in Vengerovsky district, Novosibirsk Region – OE. æfter "beyond, through", -gē "district".

ยๅ๐๕-Irmen', a village in Ordynsky district of Novosibirsk region – OE. iermen "big, strong".

Shadrino, villages in the Iskitimsky district of the Novosibirsk Region, the Kalmansky and Tselinny districts of the Altai Krai, the Yenisei, Idrinsky, and Kozulsky district of the Krasnoyarsk Krai,– OE. *sceader "protector" out of scead "protection, safeguard".

Toguchin, a town, the administrative center of the Toguchinsky district of the Novosibirsk Region. – OE. toga "leader", cynn, "family, kin".

Salair, a as part of the Guryevsky municipal district of the Kemerovo Region – OE. sala "sale, selling", iere, ōra "ore". The town has a mining and processing plant, mines and produces gold, silver, zinc, lead.

Shanda, a village in Guryevsky district, Kemerovo Region. – OE. shame.


Right: Owl image. Drawing from the site Babyblog.


Barnaul, the administrative center of the Altai Krai – OE. byrne "chain mail", ūle "owl". The plumage of an owl resembles a chain mail (see the picture to the right). Obviously owl type mails were made in the city.

Tuim, a village in Shirinsky district of Khakassia – OE. twinn "double, doubles".

Geat Irba, an urban-type settlement in the Kuraginsky district of the Krasnoyarsk Krai – OE. ierfa, Ger. Erbe "heritage".

Aginskoye, a village in the Krasnoyarsk Krai, an urban-type settlement of the Aginsk Buryat Okrug in Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. āgen "proper, own".

Shilka, rivers, the right tributary of the Yenisei River, the left part of the Amur River, a town in Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. scielga "dace, roach".

Gagul, a village in Ermakovsky district of the Krasnoyarsk Krai – OE. gāgul "throat".

Bryanka, a settlement in the North-Yeniseisk district of the Krasnoyarsk Krai – OE. berian, "naked, uncovered" – "district".

Vangash, a settlement in the North-Yeniseisk district of the Krasnoyarsk Krai – OE. wang, "flat, level", asce "dust, ashes".

Kodinsk, a town, the administrative center of Kezhemsky district of Krasnoyarsk Krai – OE. codd "pod, bag".

Badarma, a settlement in Ust-Ilimsk district of the Irkutsk Region – OE. bād "tribute", earm "poor, scarce".

Sedanovo, a settlement in Ust-Ilimsk district of the Irkutsk Region – OE. seddan "saturate".

Zima, a town, the administrative center of Ziminsky district of the Irkutsk Region. – OE. sīma "tape, chain".

Inga, a village in Cheremkhovo district of the Irkutsk Region – OE. Ing "god's name", æ "law, religion".

Mandagay, a plot (settlement) in Cheremkhovo district of the Irkutsk region – OE. mann "man", deag "fit".

Orlik, a village, the administrative center of the Oka district of Buryatia – OE. orlege "battle, war".

Tunka, a a village in the Tunkinsky district of Buryatia – OE. tunga "European goldfinch".

Dzhida, a village in Dzhidinsky district of Buryatia – OE. giedd "singing, reciting".

Selenga, a village on the river bank of the same name in the Tarbagatai district of Buryatia – OE. selen "tribute, present", - "district".

Ust'-Bryan', a village in Zaygraevsky district of Buryatia – OE. bryne "fire".

Fofonovo, a village in Kabansky district of Buryatia – OE. "color, motley", "textile".

Kizhinga, a village, the administrative center of the Kizhinga district of Buryatia – OE. *cieging out of ciegan "call, invite".

Dauria, a historical and geographical region within the present-day Republic of Buryatia,Zabaykalsky Krai and the Amur Region (Transbaikalia and west of the Amur Region) – OE. deor "dear", Eng. deer.



Daursky Reserve. Mongolian gazelles Photo by E. Kokukhin.


Khilok, a town in Zabaykalsky Kari – OE. *hillock out of hill, Eng. hillock.

Narovlin, a town in Mongolia – OE. nearu "narrow", lane "pass".

Irgen', a villge and a lake in the Chita district of the Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. earg "pitiful, useless".

Ingoda, a river and village in the Chita district of the Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. Ing – gad's name, ād "fire", eode "passed".

Chita, a city, administrative center of the Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. ciete "hut, cabin".

Burgen', a village and a lake in the Chita district of the Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. burg "city, burg".

Duldurga, a village in Duldurginsky district of the Buryat okrug of the ZAbaykalsky Krai – OE. đylđ "suffer", wœrig "fatigue".

Byrka, a village in the Priargunsky district and a settlement at the station in the Olovyanninsky district of the Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. byrga "bail, surety".

Nerchinsk, a town in Zabaykalsky Krai – OE near "near", cynn "kin".

Oldonda, a village in Borzinsky district of Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. eald "old", eonde "custom".

Selinda, a village in Piargunsky district of Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. sielen "graze", "chamois".

Gorda, a village in Piargunsky district of Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. geard "farmstead, housing".

Mangiday, villages in Sretensky district of Zabaykalsky Krai and Aleksandrovsk-Sakhalinsky district of Sakhalin Region – OE. mangian "trade", dæġ "day".

Davenda, an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Mogochinsky District of Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. deaw "dew", deaf ("deaf, empty, barren", ende "end".

Chaldanka, railway station of the Vladivostok branch of the Far Eastern Railway, Chaldonka, a village in Mogochinsky District of Zabaykalsky Krai, a mountain on the ridge of Bolshie Churki in the Jewish Autonomous oblast – OE. ceald "cold", ān "single".

Tynda, a town in Amur Region – OE tind "tip, spike", tinde "stretched".

Magdagachi, an urban locality in Zabaykalsky Krai – OE. mægden "girl, maid", mægđ "kin", mægđa "chamomile", geac "cuckoo".

Tygda, a village of Magdagaci district of Amur Region – OE. tigde "receiver, partner".

Zenkovka, a village in Konstantinovsky district of Amur Region – OE. sencan, sincan "lower, fall".

Gassi, a village and lake in Nanai district of the Khabarovsk Krai – OE. hæs "forest area", "lake".

Dada , a village in Nanai district of the Khabarovsk Krai – OE. dæda "doer".

Lidoga, a village in Nanai district of the Khabarovsk Krai – OE. lida "sailor", oga "fear, horror".

Dzhonka, rural settlement in the Nanai district of Khabarovsk Krai – OE. ġeong "young".

Ukhta, a village in Ulchsky d istrict๑ๅ๋๎ of Khabarovsk Krai – OE. uht(a) "twilight, dusk".

Dzhaore, a village on the west coast of the Amur estuary, near the confluence of the Dzhaore River in the estuary, and on the cape of the same name, Nikolaevsky district, Khabarovsk Krai – OE. ġear 1. "defense", 2. "year".


Low Pronge, a village on Cape Pronge in Nikolaevsky district of the Khabarovsk Krai– OE. preon "awl, needle", – "region, locality". Cape Pronge protrudes into the sea like a needle (see on the map at right). In some places one can read that the name of the cape originates from the Nivkh p’ro “a kind of small fish”, but the motivation of such a name and phonetic correspondence are doubtful.


At right: Cape Pronge.


Trambaus, a village in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky district of Sakhalin Region – OE đrymm "plenty", beaw (pl. beaws) "gadfly".

Tangi, a village in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky district of Sakhalin Region – OE. tang(e) "tongs".

Mangiday, a village in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky district of Sakhalin Region – OE. mangian "trade", dæġ "day".

Nogliki, an urban locality and the administrative center of Nogliksky District of Sakhalin Region – OE. "no, not", glīg "pleasure, joy".

Tungor, a village in Okhinsky district of Sakhalin Region – OE. đung "aconitum" (a plant of the family Ranunculaceae), ōra "bank, edge".







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